Thursday, January 31, 2019

Film Review: Mindwalk :: essays research papers

Film Review Mindwalk     If a good moving-picture show is unmatchable that makes you look at, Mindwalk must be superb. However, I encounternt until now read the book it was based on and I can label that the book must have been better. The actors are laughable, and the physicists accent changes with each natural scene. Furthermore, the transitions to each scene are as smooth as sandpaper. The part of this movie wasnt, and with good reason, to be glamorous though. As many of our Hollywood movies are. The fast action, sex, blood, money crazed movies that we all love. The fact that Mindwalk was based on a book also gives some explanation to the choppy scenes, as many omissions were probably made. Financing played a role in the actors chosen for the movie, a kind of ironic humor if you value just about it in context to what the entire movie is about. All of this in mind, and the fact that it was a lengthy 2+ hours it could never be a smash hit hit. I, on t he contrary, enjoyed it. Some of the issues raised are those that many of us think about often, or maybe I am just hoping that Im non the only one.     As one of the many disdain majors, the idea of my job being meaningless, or al least not a significant benefit to society has crossed my mind. I am in college to compete in our materialistic society for the highest paying job. In other words, Im in it for the money. Perhaps the crisis of perception is something for me to think about, maybe even more than others. I know my reasons arent in bound with the value system I like to portray I have and live by. Yet, I still compromise them giving myself the excuse that I am doing it all for my future family, or something like that.     The crisis of perception is in my life, and everyones. For instance success for most comes from an education. However that success isnt associated with the knowledge, just now with the money you make as a result. The physicist used the crisis of perception exercising as an explanation of how to fix everything wrong with the world. Explaining that focusing on one piece cant work, and that everything is interconnected. She uses the example of a mortal with gallstones. A western medicine physician would take the gall vesica out.

Between the Borderline of Mexico and The United States Essay -- essays

Image in a egotism portrait generally communicates to the viewer information about the identity, character, environment, feelings and interests of the artist. In the baptismal font if Between the Borderline of Mexico and The United States Frida Kahlo expresses her feeling that she holds towards hr alien environment, and her ethnic identity. This will now be marchn through analyzing the portrait to prove the above quote.Frida Kahlos full name was Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Caldern de Rivera. She was born in Mexico on July 6, 1907. Kahlos work was mainly centered on creating self portraits, but she did on occasions blusher her family and friends. She married world far-famed Mexican muralist Diego Rivera, he frequently visited the United States and Frida joined him on these trips to the States which at the time was experiencing a machine age, so there were umteen factories and large buildings around. Frida was not accustomed to this and thus she painted self-importance port raiture between the Borderline of Mexico and the United States to show her discomfort when visiting this exotic and unusual land. This conveys a sense of Frida Kahlos environment which she was subject to because of her husband.Self Portrait between the Borderline of Mexico and the United States was painted in 1932. Frida chose to paint the painting on a small piece of tin that was 11 3/4 x 13 , painting on coat is a traditional way of painting in Mexico and this technique is assumption the name Retablos. The subject matter with...

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Know nothing gain something

Life Is a learning do by for everyone. Nothing stays till the end of our breath except knowledge. From Aristotle quotes, totally men by nature desire knowledge because there testament always be both(prenominal)thing new to learn every day. During my childhood time, I think that I could be anything I fantasize when the teacher asked roughly my ambition. But now, that question be have sexs the topic that I feargond the close and I would fill some time to make up my mind and came up with a safer answer which sounded applicable. The fact was I did non have the answer.Growing up as an ordinary student, I did not make a specific culture in my life. I just a student that has fallen in love with science since in primary school when I had make my own telescope. Its Just too amazing like Albert Einstein quotes, The most beautiful thing we evict experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all contrivance and science. Starting from there, I keep my path in science empyrean and had a thought to be a scientist. However, I realized that current things would not easily come In our way and we might not get everything we want in life.After completing my secondary school knocker IsIL Planners Malaysia (CPM) qualification as student science and got an average result make me accept whatever offer came. That is me. My name is Unregulated Syllable Bin snappishness Doris. I am 22 age old and recently gradational in Bachelor In Science (Hon.) In Textile applied science at university Technology MAR. I am one of student at Faculty of Applied Science. Randomly, I think my faith is still with science. My addition begun in 2011 and finished in 2014 means that the total years of my content were three years only.Its Just like a fast as lightning. I also got a Deans list once during my degree study. As time passed, life experienced gained and achievements become a significant step of life accomplishment. I never feel burdened with this course and can overcome every h assle efficiently. In fact, by having this principle In me, I decided to give a taste Into my life by further my study for Master level. In my opinion, there are no extraordinary heap who do the great things. Its only ordinary people who are doing ordinary things in an extraordinary way.Things we dream of will not come true without any effort and courage. From my little three years of textile expo convinced(predicate), I try to learn and adapt myself with new things and for sure I found It Interesting. I am a soul that not easily give up and keep on creating excitement in life, even though its turn wrong. Life must go on. I will create a new cross road to advantage because there is no dead road for people that have a high self motivator. Furthermore, for me performing fail is an opportunity for me to perform towards the success. Took the altercate to meet other opportunities in front of me. Therefore, I am having cast to hold a M aster In Business Administration (MBA). With some important cognition and managerial skills, especially in business. I am aware with my insufficiency since business will be an integral variance of my Job, it is essential that I fill in these gaps. Moreover, during my degree study, there was sure subject related to business field such as marketing, sell and merchandising.Surprisingly, I managed to obtain a great grade in those subjects. Now, I can move ahead to become a one-level-higher than the average person. stipulation the confluence of my personal and professional interests, I also wider my goal to realize courses related to computer in order to deepen my expertise and branch out my perspectives. Last exclusively not least, therefore, to hold MBA scroll is one of my ambitions that could come one of the factors that could boost my motivation to keep going on achieving my goals.With this press out of achievement I can broaden my abilities and improved my interpersonal skills, which are crucial to any work environment. Fo r me, personal satisfaction plays a recognise role in career decision by enjoying the sense of productiveness and usefulness I gain from the work, and I feel it is a priceless experience for my future employment soon. This is because I am a person that realize I do not know nothing but interested in acquiring new information, which help me to obtain something.

Care of Suicidal Patient in Ed

This article Is ab knocked out(p) caring for pediatric patients who argon unsafe. I believe In coincided with what we digest late been learning about during our clinical experience. I was also Interested in this article beca wasting disease I had worked In pediatrics for six years antecedent to working in a rehab/nursing home setting. aft(prenominal) reading this article, I learned ways to anxietyfully screen the pediatric patient, how to do an judgment and how some families characterization and what measures of support they need during their families time of crisis.This oracle gave a case say of a male child that was brought Into the emergency apartment with his spawn and grandfather. When the hold met him in the reception area he was sitting In a head with his legs pulled up to his chest and his shoe laces were untied. He avoided eye contact during their meeting. The convey in the case study was visibly upset.This boy was brought to the emergency incision because th is young boy was found in the kitchen holding a murder knife to his neck, when his mother walked In and got the young boy to give her the knife, prior to this day in that location were many changes in the young boys life, he recently started a new school and he was diagnosed with Espaliers syndrome. This boy also had unhinge making friends in his school and he was being bullied. Other children at school were threatening this boy. This story made me think of all the children that are In POEMS and how he seemed to have a lot of things In earthy with them. They were all in similar situations.The keep back after obtaining this history from his mother and asking about any medications, vaccinations, allergies, possible exposures to communicable diseases also postulate to obtain his vital signs and head to toe assessment The young boy let the nurse do his height and weight however as soon as the nurse put the stethoscope to he boys chest he felt his heart pounding and he thought It meant he was breathing out to die. The boy had anxiety during the assessment so the nurse stopped the assessment and showed what she needed to do on his mother and after the boy relaxed a little bit, he allowed the nurse to finish the assessment on him.The nurse got a one on one to stay with this patient because he was at risk for doing harm to himself. The nurse also had to obtain an chunk and body of water drug screen. In our clinical setting, I have seen the urine drug screen used on every patient but not the formal. According to this article, It Is Important to obtain a baseline EGG because many psychophysiology agents can affect the conduction system of the heart. After the boy was medically cleared, he was eligible to meet with the psychiatrist and affectionate worker. He had to wait for the psychiatrist and he became agitated and started kicking the wall.Security had to be called Into the manner and the safety door was lowered. The nurse removed their name badge and th eir bandage scissors as they were both safety hazards. The nurse re-entered the room keeping their pathway to the door unobstructed. All riskinessous items were removed from the room. The nurse used many different techniques to deescalate the situation and used the mother to unsex Information of things that have worked In the by. When the boy was ready to discharge, the nurse gave them bringing up on a safety plan the called tort keeping knives out to the boys reach and tallow up tort outpatient compassionate.No medications were given to calm him down. The felo-de-se rate in the entire world has increased over the past few decades with a greater number of boys attempting suicide then girls. In 2010, there was a study hat found 14% of children ages 11-20 reported having suicidal thoughts within the previous month. According to this article, Native American males have the highest suicide rate in the United States for children over 10, and non-Hispanic black females have the fi nal rate.Some psychosocial risk factors include, the presence of an underlying psychiatric condition, a history of prior suicide attempts, a history of physical or sexual abuse, and a lack of mental health treatment. Poor coping skills have been set as a predictive of a suicide attempt in both sexes. Environmental and social risk factors include owning a crampfish in the household, being homeless or living in a corrections facility or group home, poor parent-child communication, social isolation, boss around and difficulties at school.Many emergency rooms are using the five level triage classification systems called Emergency Severity Index Triage Algorithm. This takes into account not only if the acuity of the patient but also the number of resources that forget be required during the evaluation. A level 1 patient would require prompt life-saving intervention. A level 2 patient would be considered in the danger zone, and needs emergent retirement. Level 3 patients need more t he 1 resource, level 4 patients require 1 resource and level 5 patients require none.At the Childrens Hospital Boston, the use a screening tool that consists of 4 questions, Are you here because you tried to hurt yourself? In the past week, have you been having thoughts about killing yourself? Have you ever tried to hurt yourself in the past other than this time? Has something very stressful happened to you in the past few weeks? If the patient answers yes to one or more of these questions they become characterized as SSI bevel 2, and the nurse would explain the policy on physical and chemic restraints which are only used as a last resort.Some strategies that nurses use to promote successful interactions with the patient and their family members include active listening, close reflexion of behavior, attending to non-verbal body language, asking open-ended questions, conveying a non-judgmental attitude, clarifying information, and providing support. The patients safety is alwa ys the greatest concern as well as the staffs safety. Family education is very important when working with suicidal patients, because heir care is often managed at home.It is important for them to follow up with outpatient care, outpatient psychiatric support, and a home safety plan. Also, the nurse needs to let the family know if when they will need to seek emergency care again. This article has helped me gain a better understanding of the psychiatric patient, no matter the age, even though it focused on pediatrics. All these techniques can be used when traffic with suicidal patients. Our role as nurses plays an important role in managing our patients care while they are in our care and promoting their health y educating our patients and their families.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Interpersonal Skills Essay

kind skills be real(prenominal) Coperni back to arrive and develop in life, they ar the foundation to the relationships we hand throughout our existence. We are interacting with battalion on a daily basis, even out if for a brief moment in time and, those interpersonal skills are the tools we need to make those interactions as collateral and effective as possible. This is peculiarly true with our chokeplace interactions. Throughout our relieve oneself experience, we give continuously join and interact with otherwises on all aspects of work in order to contract the job d unity.There are many different dimensions of interpersonal skills that accept oral and non-verbal communication, effectively delivering feedback and macrocosm open to accepting creative criticism, efficiently dealing with disagreements, and understanding how technology has an effect on theseskills in the workplace. By understanding these types of interpersonal skills we nominate to a great er extent positively influence and know each other, create an encouraging work environment and collectively work together to thrive in our employment.These interpersonal skills volition determine our degree of success in the workplace. Further more(prenominal), the absence of these interpersonal skills will hinder our other talents and knowledge and result in a dysfunctional work environment. Interpersonal Skills When thinking of a person we want to be around, it brook be difficult to pinpoint the exact reasons why we enjoy their company. A cat valium reason is that they are good communicators. Its easy to talk to them, they touch whole most to you, they have a positive attitude and are primarily pleasant to be around.Similarly, we all know someone who has difficulty communicating with others. Maybe its your coworker, a longtime friend, the clerk at your p describeent store or a family portion. Ein equityone is different and interpersonal communication skills set off depending on how surface they are in tune with themselves and others. Interpersonal communication is simply the centralize people slip by with each other (Interpersonal Skills, 2013). Whether interactions are of a social or professional nature, having good interpersonal skills will improve those interactions.The messages sent to others while communicating are both verbal and sign-language(a) (Adler, 2010). The words being spoken, the tryers perception of their meaning, the consistence language of the communicators tangled and the environment where the communication is happening are factors of interpersonal communication (Adler, 2010). With all of these moving functions its easy for misunderstandings to occur. lots clock there is a disconnection between what a loudspeaker system actuslly says, what the speaker intended to say and the meaning the listener applies to what the speaker state (Adler, 2010).Linguistic theorists C. K. Ogdfen and I. A. Richards are famous for cre ating the triangle of meaning. This model shows that there is no like a shot relationship between an idea, process or other referent and the word (or other symbol) mathematical functiond to represent it. Rather, the pathway to understanding or misunderstanding passes through the mind of the sender or telephone receiver. (Adler, 2010, p. 92) Speaking with clarity and removing equivocal terms, or terms with two different, just equally agreeable meanings is one way to mitigate inevitable misunderstandings (Adler, 2010).By eliminating the use of bank in a professional setting and being cognizant of the use of jargon communicators hindquarters also help to reduce misunderstandings (Adler, 2010). There is an perish place and time for everything and being aware of the audience and how messages will be received send packing keep verbal messages on a direct path of understanding to the listeners. Nonverbal communication oftentimes affects the way study is received more than ve rbal messages because, as the timeless phrase tells us, its non lways what you say, but how you say it that tail assembly leave a unchanging impression.Nonverbal communication is anything other than the words coming out of your spill the beans (Adler, 2010). If your boss has a slouched posture and disinterested expression on their face, this whitethorn make an employee facial expression discouraged about bringing forth serious concerns. If a colleague is qualification poor eye contact and constantly checks their watch, this whitethorn a message of disinterest to a coworker. People that often encroach upon others personal space can find that this affects the attitudes of others towards them.Most times you cannot control if your intended verbal message is received properly, but you can control if you are fidgeting and the amount of focus you are portraying to anyone you communicate with. Verbal and nonverbal communication skills go a long way towards improving overall interper sonal skills. One can improve their interpersonal skills and facilitate optimal communication by developing violate networking, group work and leadership qualities (Interpersonal Skills, 2013b).Networking skills are exemplified when an individual is self-confident, communicates effectively and never pelf building connections in their personal and professional networks (Interpersonal Skills, 2013b). People with great interpersonal skills can easily act as the go-to person in their social circle or professional organization. They can connect the dots for others because they relate well to others and move through various interpersonal environments effortlessly. Collaborating well with others and working towards a common mark illustrates good group work.Individuals with interpersonal prowess befriend with others to achieve the groups goals. They value the ideas and contributions of each team member by actively listening and encouraging each and every team member to participate. S trong leadership skills require highly developed interpersonal skills. A leader with confidence, an open mind and who readily gives due sycophancy can motivate others to work harder and achieve more (Adler, 2010). Using ones expertise to delegate appropriately and mentor those who need it are natural characteristics of a leader (Interpersonal Skills, 2013b).Poise, grace and charisma also come across a large part in the impression left later on any interpersonal interaction. Those with robust interpersonal communication skills understand not only themselves, but also those around them with a fluid time period of cause and effect.. Dealing with Criticism One cause for communication that relies heavily on interpersonal skills in order to attain a in(predicate) outcome is criticism. Dealing with criticism from any aspect can be tricky, if not handled in the right way this kind of conversation can quickly go awry very quickly.While prominent and receiving evaluate is easy and ple asurable to manage, encountering criticism is inevitable. Whether speaking out about a complaint or being the one to receive anothers dissatisfaction, criticism can spread like a wildfire of negative sensation and can result in a workplace climate where people are defensive. With the right tools though, someone can effectively deliver and react to constructive criticism as well as use that info to develop and grow more.Offering constructive feedback can be more stressful than receiving it, because we know that we may offend others by telling them something they may not want to hear. Anticipating the confrontational nature of the encounter is unnerving, but can be best minimized by having a good attitude, carefully planning the message and being well prepared in the delivery. A good attitude is imperative to fostering development in others, positively influencing work relationships, and near importantly, will also help make others feel more receptive to the constructive feedback you may have.The essence of a more positive attitude is respectthat comes from how we construct messages how we speak and act can be more important that the words themselves, as well as paying close attention not only to what you say but also to your nonverbal behavior, including your vocal tone and facial expression, when expressing yourself. (Adler, 2010) In addition, part of having respect and demonstrating equality for others is showing a genuine concern for them and being naive in communicating, which also gives others a feeling of being cute and appreciated. Planning your constructive feedback content is also essential n making your message most effective, and minimizing a defensive reaction (Adler, 2010). Organize your thoughts or the sequence of events that you would like to discussand might even wish to refer to note cardas it ensures you get the information correct and can offer the impression that you have carefully considered your comments (Garner, 2006). Your message should define the bother distinctly with sufficient detail, stay concise, accurate and on topic. The message should point one topic so as to not overwhelm the receiver and potentially cause the individual to become defensive.A good idea, would be to include any ways in which the recipient will utility from heeding your feedback. When receiving criticism, a respondent will be more accepting if their strengths and positive actions are acknowledged. Finally, the delivery of your feedback should be in a way that is most conducive to convincing the receiving individual. The use of descriptive statements, or I language, refocuses appraising(prenominal) statements on the speaker instead of judging the other person because they clearly state the reason for bringing up the matter as well as the speakers feelings (Adler, 2010).Avoid using you statements that can very easily make the situation take a turn for the worse by making the individual defensive. Pay close attention to your nonve rbal communication, so as to avoid demeaning the other person, such as speaking loudly, sounding condescending or pointing your finger (Adler, 2010). Finally when giving constructive feedback, its most important to deliver your criticism in private (Adler, 2010). There is nothing worse than feeling embarrassed and belittled, because you feel like youre being scolded in front of others.Reacting in defense is very easy to come by when youre on the receiving end of constructive criticism. Receiving criticism can actually trigger the flight-or-fight responsefeeling the proneness to withdraw (flight) or retaliate (fight) (Garner, 2006). Luckily, there are many strategies that can be implemented to help in listening non-defensively and might leave you more open to the feedback. Some strategies include recognizing your bodys somatic response to criticism-prone situations, keeping an open mind, recognizing there may be truth in the criticism, and viewing it as an opportunity for personal growth. As you pick up that you are being criticized you may feel your heart race a bit, your blood pressure rise, your mouth become a bit dry, and your come up temperature may win overhowever, it may be best to simply realize that these are somewhat instinctual responses and succumbing to them may not best serve your semipermanent goals (Garner, 2006).We learn something new every day from the people around us, curiously in the workplace where there are a wide be adrift of skills and knowledge spanning different departments (Adler, 2010). By keeping an open mind and listening thoughtfully, you may learn something useful. While it can be hard to listen sincerely when being criticized, asking for examples or clarification, paraphrasing and even keeping notes of your critics comments can give you something to do besides defend yourselfand will show your critic that you take his or her comments seriously (Adler, 2010). Doing these things, they may yield you to be more open to reco gnizing there might be some validity in your critics feedback, especially if this is an opinion others may share. You must avoid excuses, rationalizations and blaming others so as to deviate from the situation.Being honest with yourself is most important and taking the opportunity to develop and grow will benefit you in the long run. It is both the critic and the recipients responsibility to work together as a team to focus on finding a cooperative solution that meets everyones needs. The goal of critical communication is to ensure that there is a dialogueimportant information may be missed that might help better assess the particulars of the situation (Garner, 2006). Both partys perspective should be heard with respect and with as much of a non-judgmental attitude as possible.New information can potentially be uncovered that may influence ones view of the circumstances, that would otherwise remain unrevealed if the others case is not fully heard. Finding someone to place fault on i s counterproductive and will not work for satisfying both individuals. A more gainful approach is management on finding an effective solution is most beneficial to everyone involved (Adler, 2010). The goal is not to have a winner and loser, but to have a mutual understanding about the topic and how things can change for the better (Garner, 2006).

Monday, January 28, 2019

Sin Taxes

Principles and Processes of Government Budgeting evil tax revenuees, skilful or disconsolate? An Examination of the Use of goof Taxes in the get together States By Stacy Madden4/27/2012 Executive Summary Historic totallyy wickedness measurees ingest been an force egressive and economic way for the presidential term to raise receipts. The national political science mappingd tariffs and outgo valueation income enhancementes to generate al just almost all of its tax income in the earlier long time of our nation. The tax structure and philosophy has evolved and mixtured infractce the beginning of our nation, however the implement of goof taxes has remained a unassailable way for governing body activitys to raise grosss. viciousness taxes no longer exit a signifi send awayt portion of federal or kingdom governments however they do fork up a consistent stream of revenue. This paper examines the use of nefariousness taxes in the unify States. Firs t, the paper provides a basic apprehensiveness of dark taxes, current rendering, and history. Next, the paper outlines the sizables and re processs closely prevalently targeted by ungodliness taxes and provides in take ination about the effectiveness of these taxes to raise revenue and pull by with(predicate) polity moments.Common good enoughs and function targeted by sin taxes include tobacco, intoxi hatfult, fuel, hazardous chemicals, play, prostitution, pornography, and gassy foods. Lastly, the paper allow for examine the honorable and deterrent example implications of sin taxes from the emplacement of those who support and oppose the use of sin taxes in the fall in States. entre Ben Franklin adequately relegated the importance of taxes with his famous quote, unless in the humans nonhing arouse be said to be original omit death and taxes. Citizens require vested governments with the power to tax in order to provide returnss for the common good. There be round different ship canal for a government to tax its citizens in order to raise revenues, ranging from taxes on income, wealth, and property, to taxes on goods and values. The United States uses many an some other(prenominal) of these taxes in varying levels to raise the necessitate funds to carry out government business. Some taxes ar in the main accepted and uncontested, bandage others be high schoolly politicized and hard for Americans to accept.Presently, the federal government relies on income taxes for the bulk of its revenue whereas states and localities rely more heavily on other forms of taxes to raise bills for their functions. The primary function of taxes is to raise revenue for the government, however governments gravel use taxes to help spark favorable change, penalise those who bear upon of plastered goods and service, or regulate the inhalation of special(prenominal) goods and services. In these instances, taxes move from matters of re venue to give ups of brotherly policy, acting as mechanisms to force certain fashions from citizens.More particular(prenominal)ally, sin taxes brook been apply in the United States to help change behavior or regulate the uptake of goods and services deemed as sinful. In this paper, I depart define sin taxes and outline the political import of sin, provide a brief history of sin taxes and their use, examine the some common forms of sin taxes in the United States, and lastly discuss the ethical and moral implication of utilizing sin taxes as a mechanism of sociable change. Sin Tax, a DefinitionBefore considering the implications of sin taxes and their influence on the behavior of Americans, it is strategic to define the term. Taxes, most principally, argon levied by governments to raise revenue in order to conduct business in the universe interest. The United States, utilizing a progressive income tax to raise the bulk of its revenue, possess a finis where citizens cou nterbalance most of their taxes on time. (Mikesell 493) This system is non one that commonly uses taxes as a avengement, instead encouraging its citizens to remunerate their taxes for the common good and success of the nation as a whole.Noncompliance is low, and the government has even employed strategies to enhance payment, such as instruction and assistance. (Mikesell 494) Sin taxes, however, do not take this positive approach to raise revenue, instead, governments use their powers of revenue enhancement to punish behaviors when utilizing sin taxes. Most commonly, sin taxes be fret or aspiration taxes that charge recompenses for guilty pleasures or human indulgence. Lorenzi, Sin Taxes 60) Sin taxes, thitherfore, ar intended to encourage citizens to liquidate or use taxed items responsibly or discourage behavior associated with the consumption of taxed items. broad(a)s or services mostly taxed through sin tax policy have some common characteristics including nonresi lient demand, promote behavior that is traumaful to the several(prenominal), and promote behavior that is harmful to others.Goods or services targeted by sin taxes have an inelastic demand be drift they ar generally habitual, addictive, or highly pleasurable. Lorenzi, Sin Taxes 60) Further, these goods or services be targeted by sin tax legislation because consuming or utilizing the good or services can lead to self-destructive behavior, negative consequences for communities, and generally are considered socially undesirable. Thus, sin taxes are not prohibitive citizens are allowed to consume targeted goods and services as long as the tax is not steep teeming to start consumption of the good or service impossible. Viscusi 556) Further, the voluntary character of sin taxes is generally more tolerable than willing nature of income taxes. (Schmidt, Barr and Swanson 1677) The most confusing and controversial element when considering sin taxes is the definition of sin.This word ca n be highly political and misleading, automatically do most think of sin in phantasmal terms. However, sin, in the circumstance of sin taxes, refers to addictive, self-destructive, and socially undesirable, behavior from the consumption of goods and services without crossing into religious doctrine. Lorenzi, Sin Taxes 60) In this context, then, sin is behavior that is undesirable enough to be targeted by taxes as a form of regularisation or discouragement, but not so socially unacceptable to be flagitious to the universe. (Lorenzi, Sin Taxes 60) Therefore, sin taxes should not be considered as forms of punishment for poor consumption choices, but instead be a catalyst to foster fit and safer decisions. (Viscusi 547) However, this can be a slippery slope, the express mail use of taxes on goods and services deemed as sinful could grow and encompass others outside the telescope of sin.Sin Tax History Sin taxes have a long history, originating with religious doctrine and the p ower of organized religions to collect fees. Popes levied the earliest forms of sin taxes on prostitutes, brothels, and the sale of indulgence to raise money for religious projects. (Lorenzi, Sin Taxes 59) Laws require prostitutes to designate half of her property and fortune to convents, and brothels were taxed continuing through the sixteenth century. Lorenzi, Sin Taxes 59) Further, Russian Czar Peter the Great imposed fees on the length of beards to tax vanity, and the Puritans used sin taxes to curb extravagance. (Lorenzi, Sin Taxes 59)The United States has a long history of utilizing taxes on socially undesirable goods and services to fund the government. In the early years of our democracy, the federal Government derived closely all its revenue from consumption taxes in the form of duties on imports and come across taxes on liquors and tobacco. American Economic Association 50) This tradition was set early when Congress consecrateed excise taxes on tobacco and snuff, refin ed sugar, distilled spirits, carriages, and property exchange at auctions in order to finance the debts incurred during the Revolutionary war. (Hines 51) However, these taxes were not strong received by a reality that was over taxed by the British government and violent protests, in what was later coined the Whiskey Rebellion, resulted in the abolition of many un e preciseday excise taxes during the Jefferson Administration. Hines 52)The War of 1812 and the Civil War twain take the federal Government to raise revenue and as a result old excise taxes were reinstated as sanitary as taxes on gold, jewelry, silverware, watches, playing cards, feathers, patent medicines, billiard tables, leather, telegrams, yachts, and many other luxuries, however these taxes were quickly repealed at one time the wars were over. (Hines 62) The federal Government was permitted to levy a personal income tax with the 16th Amendment, which became the main source of revenue in 1913. Hines) Federal exc ise taxes did not completely disappear during this time however prohibition hard limited the possible revenue of excise taxes before the Depression.The repeal of barrier and expansion of excise taxes on luxuries during the Depression helped to finance the change magnitude federal spending of the New Deal Programs totaling more than 15 percent of the federal revenue in 1933. Hines 52) The expansion of programming during and following World War II required higher income taxes, fully transferring the bulk of government revenue away from excise and consumption taxes to the system we employ today. (Hines) The federal government still utilized some consumption and excise taxes, however these were limited to those goods and services mostly deemed socially undesirable, or sin taxes. Popular Goods and go Taxed as Sin Tobacco and Alcohol The scope of goods and services targeted by sin taxes is limited in American society.The two oldest and most astray targeted goods are tobacco and alco hol. As evidenced in the history of sin taxes, alcohol and tobacco have been taxed to finance federal and state governments, especially in unbend fiscal times or to raise money for study legislation or wars. These goods have been targeted by sin tax legislation because they have the authority to raise money earlier quickly, have been relatively accepted as sinful, and have direct casual relationships with health or social problems. Hines 63) Further, it is easier for governments to loose taxes on tobacco and alcohol to the public since both goods tend to have negative consequences for the public at heroic. Legislators can disguise taxes on tobacco and alcohol as regulations to help cherish society from the health and social consequences resulting from overconsumption of these goods time requiring those who consume tobacco and alcohol to finance the consequences of their consumption choices. (Boyd and Seldon 365) Thus, in times of summation taxes it is easier and more popul ar to increase taxes on goods instead of taxes on income.Cigarettes have been a major target of sin taxes in most recent history as the health risks have been widely publicized. In order to combat stooge consumption, the federal government and many states have levied taxes on the production and/or sale of cigarettes. The rationale behind this tax is quite simple, those who partake in the pleasure of ingest should help pay for the health boot required resulting from their choice. (Gruber 203) Today, all states and the federal government impose an excise tax on cigarettes, and these taxes are increasing as governments try to balance their budgets. American medical checkup Association 1909)Cigarette excise taxes are widely accepted in public opinion, the hazards of smoking have demonized the industry and those who choose to purchase the products. (Gruber 194) Utilizing sin taxation to regulate consumption of tobacco has been highly effective, according to the CDC, A 10% increase in the price of cigarettes can reduce consumption by nearly 4% among adults and can have an even gravider effect among youths and other price-sensitive groups. (American Medical Association 1909) Sin taxation on alcohol, while a widely targeted good, seems to be less popular and publicized in popular media. Taxes on alcohol tend to be lower than those on tobacco, and many states handle the sale of alcohol differently (alcohol license tax, state operated liquor stores, etc. ), making the tax less visible to the public. ( flush toiletson and Meier 580) Further, it is harder to green goddess the effect specific liquor, beer, and wine taxes have on consumption.For example, higher taxes increasing the price on one qualification cause consumers to substitute to another, more affordable alternative, such as substituting wine with beer. (Johnson and Meier 591) However, studies show change magnitude prices on alcohol as a result of taxation have modify alcohol consumption grade to an ext ent even if it is minimal. (Boyd and Seldon 365) Sin taxation on both tobacco and alcohol have seemed to lower the consumption of these goods while raising revenues for state and federal governments, however half-size attention is given to other factors impact decreasing consumption rates.The American public has been flooded with messages about the dangers of smoking and national campaigns have worked to discourage Americans to stop smoking, helping to decrease cigarette consumption in the United States along with the steep sin taxes increasing the prices. Further, many cities and states are adopting smoking bans in public places, limiting the accessibility of facilities for smokers. Also, there are very some substitutes for tobacco products, forcing smokers to either pay the tax or consume less.Political movements and tougher legislation against behavior resulting from alcohol consumption might be affecting consumption rates just as easy as increased prices resulting from sin taxes. Taxes on alcohol and tobacco can also increase production be, causing producers to utilize their resources to raise other commodities that are not as heavily taxed, decreasing the overall production of tobacco and alcohol products. Boyd and Seldon 370) Further, lower consumption rates may not mean that consumption is actually dropping if consumers are turning to affordable black food market substitutes. (Johnson and Meier 591) Environmental Americans have become increasingly accustomed to sin taxes that will help promote safer environmental practices and sustainability. Increased understanding of environmental factors contact pollution has increased the need for governmental regulation of emissions. As a result, the federal government has levied taxes on goods and services that contribute to pollution.The most common of these taxes is that on fuel gasoline and diesel. Sin taxes levied on gasoline are intended to discourage driving and reduce pollution as substantially as traffic congestion in the process. (Hines 52) This tax is easy for government to justify since the majority of funds raised from the tax are fatigued on highway maintenance and construction. (Hines 52) piece of music this tax may not have been enacted with sin regulation in mind, environmental regulation helps to justify it now, putting it in the sin category.Environmental sin taxes are not limited to fuel they are also levied on gas-guzzler cars, heavy road vehicles, highway-type tires, and all forms of air transportation. (Hines 53) Ozone depleting chemicals also present an opportunity to tax environmental sin. non only does the federal government limit the use of these hazardous chemicals, they are also taxed. (Hines 53) The strict regulation and higher taxes on these chemicals has severely reduced their production and use, almost making the usage limits irrelevant. Hines 53) In the future, scaled taxes on specific chemicals could help further reduce their use and potential h arm to the ozone, however the federal government has not utilized sin taxes soundly enough to enact further environmental regulation. Gambling, Prostitution, and Pornography Gambling is a service that has been a target of sin taxes since the early years of our nation, easily defined as a sin but harder to single out and tax since it is not a good. The federal government has not taxed gambling with the same enthusiasm as tobacco, alcohol, or fuel taxes. taxing gambling in the United States is tricky, Native American and state sponsored gambling is tax free, and place gambling taxes too high can cause taxpayers to turn to alternatives, such as illegal gaming establishments. (Schmidt, Barr and Swanson 1682) Further, it is harder for consumers to feel the effects of gambling taxes since most tax cost are not directly funded by service prices. Instead, most sin taxes are levied on the gaming establishments in the form of license agreements for specific games or total revenue. Schmidt, Barr and Swanson 1687) Thus, gambling taxes do not technically raise the cost of the service and encourage citizens to make cave in decisions, instead gambling establishments bear the majority of the burden of the tax cost. While gambling sin taxes are hard to levy on individuals for regulation, they can be a tool to monitor and stop organized crime through IRS oversight. (Schmidt, Barr and Swanson 1681) Prostitution and pornography are qualifiedly difficult to tax, each(prenominal) for their own, bankrupt reasons.Prostitution, while generally considered immoral, is legal in some states and on paper is considered victimless since it is a consensual act between two adults. (Lorenzi, Taxing Antisocial Behavior for the Common Good 331) Further, taxes in this industry generally are levied on the establishment, much like gambling, and if the tax becomes too high, consumers will look for substitutes, generally illegal. Pornography is equally as difficult to tax, since so much of this product is available online.States are still trying to ascertain out how to charge a sales tax on online purchases, rather unsuccessfully, and pornography is no exception. Thus, taxes on this industry are limited to taxes on producers and networks, not individual consumers. (Lorenzi, Taxing Antisocial Behavior for the Common Good 331) In the end, taxes on prostitution and pornography are not as readily apparent to the consumer as with tobacco, alcohol or fuel, reducing the individual deterrent qualities of a sin tax on these goods and services. racy TaxesObesity rates in the United States have been rising, and as a result so have health issues and healthcare be. (Chaufan, Hong and Fox 87) In recent years, state and federal governments have debated utilizing sin taxes to raise the cost of purchasing kilogram calorie dense foods with no nutritional value in order to deter consumption. However, these fat taxes are not new and have been present since the 1920s. (Creighton 127) They are gaining in popularity as the corpulency epidemic continues to cause widespread health issues.These unhealthy goods are particularly targeted by health officials because they are most commonly marketed to kids, and children who develop poor eating habits when they are young and more likely to become obese as adults. (Fletcher, Frisvold and Tefft 968) Thus, with evidence from the tobacco industry, sin taxes on unhealthy goods would seem to be a good system to encourage healthier food purchases. Further, taxing these goods could provide huge revenue increases for federal and state governments since the unhealthy food industry profits are similar to those of the alcohol industry. Fletcher, Frisvold and Tefft 968) Utilizing taxes as a mechanism to change behavior has not been as successful for curbing obesity. Taxing soft drinks has turn up to discourage consumption, particularly for children and groups with limited spending capability. (Fletcher, Frisvold and Tefft 972) However, changing behaviors that lead to obesity takes more than just cutting specific foods out of a diet. For example, diets high in caloric intake can cause obesity irrespective of where the calories are coming from if a person does not get enough exercise.Curbing obesity almost requires a personalized plan for each individual, way not only on their diet, but also exercise habits, catching makeup, and lifestyle. (Chaufan, Hong and Fox 88) Simply targeting one factor does not help catch problems with the other factors. Further, there are too many substitutes for unhealthy chuck out food, allowing citizens to continue to make poor health choices, even if we target certain goods. (ODonoghue and Rabin 1841) Ethical and Moral Considerations of Sin TaxesSin taxes can be a of import tool for government to raise revenue and help shape social policy. However, adding morals and values to a tax requires ethical and moral considerations supra those of most other forms of taxes. These taxes are levied with a specific policy outcome in mind, to date sometimes it may be difficult to separate the governments interest in raising revenue with the governments overarching policy goal. Since these taxes generally have some sort of taint attached with the goods or services taxed, it is also important to ensure these tax policies are enacted for the common good.Sin taxes have been the target of moral and ethical discussions mainly because it is hard to define what exactly constitutes a sin. Disputes arise as legislators decide what goods and services need to be regulated for the public puff upbeing. While many of the goods and services taxed as sin have historically been deemed evil, immoral, seedy, or drab discourse about who decides these products deserve to be regulated and taxed above and beyond other goods and services must be evaluated. This seems to be the central moral interrogation surrounding sin taxes.Should a minority of the population have to pay an extra tax to s upport the government simply because they partake or utilize a specific good or service? Taking this question a step further, sin taxes have the potential to raise large revenues, so is it ethical to make a few pay for government services for all? Who gets to decide how these funds will be spent, and who or what will this spending affect? (Green 70) The last overarching question surrounding the sin taxes focuses on the governments power to tax, namely, can the government use its power to tax to shape and enforce social policies?Those in favor of sin taxes would argue there are many reasons why it is moral and ethical to require consumers who purchase these particular goods and services to pay more than the average taxpayer. Namely, sin taxes target goods and services that cause negative consequences for the public at large. (Green 68) These could be increased health care costs or higher demand for social services. It is logical, then, to require these consumers to pay more since the y are directly contributing to higher government costs for all.Not only is it logical and moral to require these consumers to pay more for the added costs as a result of their consumption, higher taxes can help them make better, healthier choices. Sin taxes have been proven to reduce the consumption of specific goods and services, helping to create sustainable, prosocial behaviors for the future. (Lorenzi, Taxing Antisocial Behavior for the Common Good 328) Sin tax policies can help deter and regulate unsociable behaviors as a result of consumption of sin goods and services while simultaneously raising revenues to pay for the programming needed to help those affected by this behavior.Further, sin taxes raising money on the backs of those partaking in asocial behavior reduce the need to tax prosocial behaviors. For example, revenue generated from sin taxes can be used to fund government business, reducing income tax costs for the larger population. (Lorenzi, Sin Taxes) Targeting the se immoral behaviors and using them to fund governmental trading operations ensures those engaged in prosocial behavior are not bearing a larger share of the cost of government. This is an attractive and easy sale to the public since higher taxes make all citizens unhappy.Sin taxes on paper are highly regressive, and as a result unfavorable to many. However, lifetime incidence studies prove the effects of these taxes on lower income taxpayers is about equal to those in pith or higher income households. (Poterba 327) Those who oppose sin taxes see the value they transport to both government revenues as well as the common good however these positives do not outweigh the negative ethical and moral implications. First and foremost, opponents of sin taxes believe it is immoral for the government to rely on funding from the very behaviors it has deemed sinful and therefore is trying to regulate or change. Lorenzi, The Moral Grounds of Sin Taxes 68) Opponents see sin taxes as a stepping stone to banning certain goods and services, which should be a social policy decision supported by the public, not forced on them through prohibitive taxes. (Viscusi 547) Opponents therefore do not believe taxes should be used as a mechanism to enforce social policies or enact social change. (Creighton 135) In essence, the government is taking away the individuals autonomy, legislating they should not purchase certain goods and products. (Green 72) This is a difficult issue to balance, Americans value independence and the freedom to choose.Further, sin taxes are regressive, putting the large burden of payment on those with the least ability to pay. (Hines 65) In slow economic times, when governments tend to raise sin taxes to help close the revenue and expenditure gap, sin taxes could actually hurt the economy, pushing these citizens to the end of their economic resources. (Johnson and Meier 582) In the end, the same population the government is targeting to raise the revenue would be the same population in need of government services once their resources were depleted.Further, utilizing sin taxes as a form of punishment or regulation directly competes with the message of the general tax code, namely, every citizen has the obligation to pay their taxes and support the government. The United States evolved their tax system from one ground on consumption and tariffs to one based on taxing income based on the ability to pay. Sin taxes do not fit fairly into this cautiously crafted tax structure we use today, sending the public mixed messages about citizens role in the taxation process. Lastly, opponents of sin taxes are sceptical if they are actually reaching the policy outcomes intended.Studies show increased prices on certain goods and services reduces consumption, however there could be many other factors contributing to the decline in usage. For example, reduced consumption might be a result of heightened public awareness about the health risks, greater ac cess to prevention and rehabilitation, harsher criminal legislation surrounding a specific behavior, or any number of other factors. Further, sin taxes on some goods, like unhealthy foods, really do not work at all since there are so many additional factors that might be contributing to the issue. Chaufan, Hong and Fox 87) Opponents also are skeptical sin taxes even reduce consumption since the presence of similar or equal substitutes might encourage consumers to find these goods and services elsewhere, such as illegal gambling establishments or black market cigarettes. (Johnson and Meier 591) The availability of substitutes could in turn create greater antisocial behavior and costs to the government in the form of criminal investigation, prevention, and added health risks from unsafe goods and services. ConclusionTaxes are an inevitable fee all must pay to support the government. Citizens vest the power to tax with governments in return for government services. Governments take the power to tax a step further with sin taxes, not only raising revenue but also enacting or enforcing social policy. Sin taxes have been used successfully throughout history, particularly when citizens unanimously agree a sin exists. Sin taxes have also been successful in regulating or curbing consumption resulting in antisocial behavior as well as generating revenue.On the surface, it would seem as if sin taxes are a great way to raise revenues and influence or enforce social policy. However, there are many ethical and moral implications surrounding sin taxes. dig deeper into the positive and negative consequences of these taxes sheds light on the inherent problematic nature of the tax, and leads to questions about its place in the American tax structure. Legislators must be cognizant of these moral and ethical questions before deciding to enact taxes that could potentially be discriminatory to some members of society.These taxes should be evaluated on a typesetters case by case b asis, with clear and measureable policy outcomes included in the evaluation. insurance outcomes that are not easily measured may not be the best use of sin tax influence for social change. In the end, taxes on goods or services labeled as sinful have great potential to raise revenue, and as a result these taxes are popular to help close revenue and expenditure gaps. Perhaps sin taxes are a great case study for tax structures based on consumption instead of income. Hines 69) Sin taxes target consumption, and this seems to work well to raise revenue for the government. Many of the ethical and moral questions surrounding the use of sin taxes to influence social change could be eliminated within a tax structure based on consumption however this sacking would be a major tax reform in the United States. This may not be the answer we are looking for, yet sin taxes provide a window in which to examine tax policy, and possibly change the way our tax structures work in the future.Works Cited American Economic Association. inhalation and Other Indirect Taxes. American Economic brush up 9 (1919) 49-62. American Medical Association. State Cigarette Excise Taxes-United States, 2009. MMWR morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2010. Boyd, Roy and Barry J. Seldon. Revenue and Land-Use Effects of Proposed Changes in Sin Taxes A General Equilibrium Perspective. Land economic science 67. 3 (1991) 365-374. Chaufan, Claudia, Gee Hee Hong and Patrick Fox. Sin-Food Taxes and Sugar-Sweetened BeveragesThe powerful Policy For the Wrong Reasons? American diary of Health Promotion 25. (2010) 87-90. Creighton, Robert. Fat Taxes The Newest Manifestation of the Age-Old Excise Tax. ledger of Legal Medicine 31 (2010) 123-136. Fletcher, Jason M. , David E. Frisvold and Nathan Tefft. The Effects of Soft Drink Taxes on Child and Adolescent Consumption and Weight Outcomes. Journal of worldly concern Economics 94 (2010) 967-974. Green, Rebecca. The Ethics of Sin Taxes. Public Healt h Nursing 28. 1 (2010) 68-77. Gruber, Jonathan. Tobacco At the join The Past and Future of Smoking Regulation in the United States. Journal of Economic Perspectives 15. (2001) 193-212. Hines, James R. Jr. Taxing Consumption and Other Sins. Journal of Economic Perspectives 21. 1 (2007) 49-68. Johnson, Cathy M. and Kenneth J. Meier. The Wages of Sin Taxing Americas Legal Vices. The westbound Political Quarterly 43. 3 (1990) 577-595. Lorenzi, Peter. Sin Taxes. Social Science and Public Policy 41. 3 (2004) 59-65. . Taxing Antisocial Behavior for the Common Good. fiat 47. 4 (2010) 328-332. . The Moral Grounds of Sin Taxes. Society 44. 1 (2006) 67-71. Mikesell, John L. Fiscal Administration. Belmont, CA Thompson Wadsworth, 2007. ODonoghue, Ted and Matthew Rabin. Optimal Sin Taxes. Journal of Public Economics 90 (2006) 1825-1849. Poterba, James M. Lifetime INcidence and the Diatributional Burden of Excise Taxes. American Economic Review 79. 2 (1989) 325-330. Schmidt, Robert, Cha rles F. Barr and David A. Swanson. Socioeconomic Impacts of the Proposed Federal Gaming Tax. foreign Journal of Public Administration 20. 8-9 (1997) 1675-1698. Viscusi, W. Kip. Promoting Smokers Welfare With Responsible Taxation. National Tax Journal 47. 3 (1994) 547-558.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Term Paper Guidelines

GENERAL GUIDELINES The run along study Report should be written using General Guidelines below and should contain the adjacent parts 1. guise page Cover page Title summon Abstract Page Acknowledgements (optional) Declaration defer of table of contents List of Figures (If Applicable) List of Tables (If Applicable) List of abbreviations and symbols (If Applicable) 2. groundwork (2pages) 3. Literature survey (3pages) 4. intervention Acknowledgement Table of Contents guise Page Declaration Cover Page 5. Conclusion and Recommendation (1page) 6. References (1page) 7. Appendices Guidelines on Content WRITING YOUR PRETEXT PAGESCover Page the page should display call of Institute assimilators Full Name (as it appears on the Faculty Register) Students ID figure of speech (as it appears on the Faculty Register) touch Internship Start and Finish Dates Cover Page should be in regular format as shown below GHANA set up OF MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TERM PAPER REPORT St udent Name Student ID NO Title Page should be in standard format as shown below GIMPA BUSINESS SCHOOL GREENHILL COLLEGE Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Of Month, Year Abstract, Acknowledgement And Table Of ContentAbstract cover where your internship/work was conducted (name of company, department, location, type of business). Summarize your internship goals, activities, and accomplishments, highlighting key knowledge or skills gained. How did this internship benefit you, and how did it benefit the company? The abstract is limited to half page. It should be 1. 0 line-spaced, using only one lieu of the paper, and should be in spite of appearance the internship report margin requirements. Acknowledgement/Dedication If you wish, you may include a page with a brief note of inscription or credit rating of help received from specific individuals.Declaration it should read as below I, the undersigned, obligate that this Internship Report is my original work and that it has not been presented in any separate University or Institution for academic credit. Student full name and ID .. Signature .. Date. Table of Content Internship report should have a Table of Contents for the convenience of the reader. If figures or tables are used in the text, a separate List of Figures or List of Tables should be included as per pretext page guidelines Introduction of the Organization and line AnalysisThis chapter should include the following Branch of trade / field Structure (size, departments) Field of (business) activity / responsibilities Problem analysis description of challenges the intern screwd( but should be managemnt related and not own(prenominal) issues) This section should answer the following questions What is the full style of the judicature? fountain a brief history of the company, full mailing address and germane(predicate) web links. What is the type of ownership of the system of rules? What sector does the organ ization operates in? Provide an organizational chart of the organizationWhat are the problems observed How the problems surfacelined travel the organization Why management should pay attention to the problems Literature Review Students should place their internship/work in the context of their world of study/ metier e. g. marketing, finance etcetera As candidates for an undergraduate degree, they should demonstrate your familiarity with the literature that is applicable to their experience, and ability to evaluate that literature critically, and to apply it in the practical mickle of the internship i. e. in relation to the problem analysis.Include minimum of five(5) references in your literature review. Discussion How has knowledge acquired during studies at Greenhill assisted in resolving issues in your organization (issues mean challenges, opportunities etc) Indicate how the internship/work attunes to the your study program, future plans work or further study This is the h eart of the report. Explain what was learned from the internship/work. The student is to cut into a vivid description of the business they did during internship based on their area of study and any other extra duty performed.In this section the report should answer the following questions What skills and experiences were gained from the intership/work? What kind of responsibilities were undertaken during the internship/work? How are the activities carried out during internship correlated with classroom knowledge? How the internship will influence interns future vocation plans? It should express the following Evaluation of the assigned tasks and the individual work slaying Implications for future study and career planning Comparison of goals and expectations with actual experience Social conditions during internship(atmosphere, work climate, mentoring situation) Conclusions and Recommendation This section should include the following A summary of key conclusions derived from the I nternship experience. General observations about the sector in which your Internship organization operates References students need to support their work with available literature, for instance the company website, pamphlets, publications etc. Use the APA Format of referencing Examples include 1. One author (Jones, 1995) or (Jones, 1995 Smith, 1996). 2.Two authors (Jones and Kane, 1994) or (Jones and Kane, 1994 Smith, 1996). 3. More than two authors (Jones et al. , 1995) or (Jones et al. , 1995a Jones et al. , 1995b Smith et al. , 1994 Smith et al. , 1995). References are listed in alphabetical osrder according to surname and initials of first author. Use the following as an example Rochlin, M. W. , Itoh, K. , Adelstein, R. S. and Bridgman, P. C. (1995). Localization of myosin IIA and B isoforms in cultured neurons. J. Cell Sci. 108, 3661-3670 Number Of Copies You will need to bind one official copy of your Term Paper Report.Submit spiral bound copy to the Grennhill College Secre tariate (SB 219) Paper, Font And spatial arrangement The Term Paper Report must be printed on standard size, white, A4 (8. 27 * 11. 69)80g/m? paper Use double line spacing throughout and print on only one perspective of the paper. Use regular, unadorned print (i. e. New Times papistical), 12 crown font size for text. Scientific names of genera should be underlined or printed in true italics Print in black and white Chapter headings can be in different font but should be consistent in the whole document MarginsThe Term Paper Report should have a minimum margin of 1-1/2 inches (for binding purposes) on the left side of the page 1 inch at the right side 1-1/4 inches at the top and bottom of the page. Pagination All pages except the title page should be minuteed. This includes full-page photographs, charts and graphs, the bibliography, and appendices. For the pretext pages, use downhearted Roman numerals (ii, iii, etc. ). Page i is the abstract page, but the page number is not prin ted on this page. The first item on the Table of Contents list should be the Abstract.This will be followed by the title page, and dedication or acknowledgment section you may wish to include. This is numbered in the small roman series, with the page numbers displayed. The remainder of the internship report is numbered with Arabic numerals (1, 2, etc. ). The page numbers that are displayed must be centered at the bottom of each page, within the bottom margin. Style The Term Paper Report is expected to be analytical rather than descriptive. It should contain accurate, factual information together with sound arguments, conclusions and recommendations.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Managing Culture Essay

A central number in forethought of organisational goal is how to overcome the Principle-Agent Problem and how to overlay with the institutional theory. If a channel is to effectively deal with an expanding government, it must manage sure that its flori coating is well managed. To do so, organisational managers must have how to prevail over the head teacher Agent problem and the institutional theory. The Principal Agent problem is a description of a conflict of interests that the normal (principle stakeholders, roleholders, etc. ) causes pro leads on the performance of the disposal whereby the agents ( meshees) usually earn unconditional wages.They are parallel but conflicting wants the principle seeks the greatest return for the least pay whereby the agent seeks to do the least run low for the greatest pay. The Principle-Agent Problem is found in umteen employer/employee associations especially when stakeholders employ spinning top executives of corporations (Jackson and Carter 2000). The principle must always settle conflicts amidst organisational objectives and the incentives of the diametric subgroups within the organization. Good managers employ incentives, commands, and organizational stopping point to line sure that this is straind.On the other hand, institutional theory deals with the boneheadeder and more elastic features of social structure. It lays emphasis to the procedures through which structures, regulations, norms, and customs develop as undeviating guiding principles for social behavior. It finds out how these elements are developed, diffused, implemented, and adapted in an organization. The flightiness of Institutional theory and organizational refining is important in organizations. The edifice blocks of institutions and market-gardenings have the strength of carrying with them different meanings eve in a ace organization or culture.Differences in interpretations of reciprocal symbols support the multiplicity o n which cultures flourish and institutions rely. In the theory of organizational culture, issues of diversity are in the main dealt with through studying the different subcultures while institutional theory deals with transmute in institutional logistics (Jackson and Carter 2000). Therefore, the anxiety has a role to play in mediating between these two issues (Principle-Agent Problem the institutional theory).This essay develops the argument that organizational culture tummy and should be managed in corporations in five sections. segmentation 1 defines the meaning of organisational culture Section 2 outlines the importance of organisational culture Section 3 describes how organisational culture can be managed Section 4 describes acculturation and counselling of Organizational Change Section 5 describes the implications for culture worry This essay will therefore show that organizational culture should be managed since it leads to meliorate coordination and integration i n organizations with the give being improved organizational strength.What is Organizational Culture? Organizational culture refers to the set of mutual values, beliefs and expectations that govern the way members of an organization approach their duties in the work egress and interrelate with one another. Research shows that organizational culture is quite different from other world cultures. It lays emphasis on how workers describe their colleagues and the kind of stories they share with one another.According to Schein 1980, organizational culture is a pattern of share basic assumptions that organizational members learn as it solves its problems of extraneous adaptation and indwelling integration that works well enough to be considered valid and, in that locationfore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in tattle to those problems (Schein 198012). The figure below shows that organizational culture is divided into five levels, that is, primeval assumptions, values, behavioral norms, pattern of behavior and Artifacts and Symbols. picFigure 1 Levels of Organizational Culture (Adapted from Schein 1980) Importance of Organizational Culture Literature on organizational effectiveness shows that organizational culture plays a significant role in motive and augmenting the value of intellectuals particularly the employees. The concept of organizational culture is important in familiarity intensive corporations. This paper demonstrates it clear that culture is an essential doer in organizations and helps maximize the value of human resources. Schein 1990 advocates that organizational culture is flat more significant in contemporary organizations than it was in the past.Organizational culture leads to improved coordination and integration in organizations with the result being improved organizational effectiveness. Through organizational culture, an organization is able to process invention and the capacity to successf ully bring in new technologies. Organizational culture likewise enables organizations to effectively control dispersed work units and augment employee diversity. It also allows for cross- heathen perplexity of international ventures and multi-national corporations.Besides the greater need to cope with the external and interior factors, organizational culture has become increasingly important since, for many organizations, intellectual assets now comprise the major source of value. Augmenting the value of workers as intellectual assets calls for a culture that gain grounds their intellectual participation and, eases both personalised and organizational learning. It also calls for the creation and application of new knowledge and the solidification to share new ideas with others (Sennet 1998). Managing Organizational CultureWith the fast changing environment and ongoing insights into organizational efficiency, business organizations are seriously rethinking how they should manag e their cultures to achieve their goals and objectives. It is necessary for these organizations to identify the type of culture that is necessary to accomplish their goals and objectives and make certain the successful execution of the required agitates (Ogbonna and Wilkinson 2003). Culture extends over the drift of management thinking and corporate culture has been one of the most continuing catchphrases of organizational management.The appeal of the context is that corporate culture is ostensibly consolidative and this clearly appeals to managements involvement in forecasting an frame of the corporation as a community of peoples interests. Possibly, culture penetrates to the core of an organization-it is almost similar to the context of personality regarding an individual and the tiny sense of what defines an organization its mission and core values. As a result, the management of culture should become a critical area of management dexterity in organizations.It should, howe ver, be noted that adoption of the best culture is a prerequisite if an organization is to succeed. Managers should determine the most efficient culture for their organization and, if need be how to effectively swap these cultures. The success of contemporary business organizations could be highly attributed to corporate culture. Research shows that organizational culture is a major pointer to organizational performance and this culture can be managed to enhance an organizations competitive advantage. Organizational culture is a good fig for an enterprise whose top management would like to develop.The image of a corporation differs in terms of how one views the organization. Research shows that even organizations with strong cultures have a broad social distance between senior management and employees. Organizational culture is barely planned or predictable it is the ordinary results of social interrelations and, therefore, evolves and emerges with time. As a result, this should b e managed to fit certain strategic ends since organizations have the ability of transforming themselves and the management of culture is such a good way of avoiding such incidents.According to Ogbonna and Wilkinson (2003), organizational culture should be managed as a device for augmenting company effectiveness (Ogbonna and Wilkinson 2003). vigilance of organizational culture can be more readily enumerated and empirically evaluated based on the interpersonal and symbolic features of management. This requires deep qualitative management of the organizational lives of every employee. Managers while managing organizational culture should put into context certain factors such as variety show-oriented culture, education culture, inventive culture and project-oriented culture. solicitude of organizational culture should identify and develop an organizational culture that allows for agility, encourages alliances, companionships and networks promotes knowledge management promotes corpo rate responsibility and proper integrity and incorporates diversity. Culture and Management of Organizational Change If real change is to take place in corporations rather than short-lived change, then it has to take place at the cultural perspective. Organizational culture has many strong attractions as a facilitator for change.Firstly, cultures can be plainly created-managers need to be aware of what is needed to change an already alive culture. The capacity of organizations to be culturally inventive is associated with leadership. The top management in any organization must be responsible for developing powerful cultures. This is because organizational leaders develop the social man of a corporation they shape organizational beliefs and deal with the drama and visual percept of the corporation (Mir and Mir 2009).Research shows that culture is often counter posed to official rationality- In this sense culture is significant in resolving the predicaments associated with bureauc racy in an organization formal procedures are critical for organizational integrity though they also restrain autonomy and invention. Today, organizations are growing in an uncertain manner and the adoption of adaptable cultures that are receptive to change to deal with the changing environment and crises has become essential.Ackroyd and Crowdy, (1990) focus on the family relationship between culture and the management of organizational change through the acculturation of friendly interactions at all levels, the amalgamation of individuals with shared goals and dependence on employee responsibility (Ackroyd and Crowdy 1990). Implications for The Management Of Culture In an Organization Research shows that there are two fundamental approaches to the management of culture in organizations and, by implication, this include strategy conforming (upholding order and continuity) and transforming (altering and breaking already existing patterns).As demonstrated by the successive poor per formance of many companies, the efficiency of the selected approach to corporate culture and strategy depends on the abstract factors relating to both the inner and the exterior business environment. Thus, organizational culture take to be managed though the adopted strategies are highly determined by the prototype and prospect subscribed to by the manager. In coping with the management of organizational culture, it is important to identify as much as attainable the features of the present or new target culture the illusions, symbols, customs and assumptions that affix force to the culture.Consequently, action can be initiated in any of the keystone areas listed below Enrollment, selection and substitution- Culture management can be influenced by making certain that appointments make the existing culture stronger or encourage a culture shift removal and substitution may be used to significantly change the culture of an organization. Socialization- stimulation and successive tr aining and training can lead to acculturation to an already existing or new culture. This can also enhance interpersonal exchange of ideas and team up work, which is vital in fragmented corporate cultures. Performance management/ stipend systems- This can be used to encourage preferred behaviors, which may result to changed organizational values. Leadership- Managers can strengthen or assist in the abolishment of existing illusions, symbols, behaviors, and beliefs. Participation- of all corporate members in cultural rebuilding or management activities and related inputs, decision-making and improvement activities is important if long-term cultural change and management is to be achieved. Interpersonal communication- Meeting the needs of interpersonal interactions is vital in promoting an existing corporate culture and integrating organizational members into that culture. efficient teamwork- This encourages change and developments in cultural communication. Structures, principle s, processes, and resource allocation- This need to be harmonious with the culture of an organization (Boston, Istensaker and Falkenberg 2007). The above represent several strategies that can be used in corporations to manipulate it in terms of the cultures and subcultures that make it up. The management of organizational culture is based on a complicated scholarship of the tacit and explicit features that make up the already existing culture. induction This essay has shown that organizational culture can and should be managed. What makes up organizational culture and its alleged role in corporate success are contested, resting on prospects of culture either as traditionally based, change resilient, deep societal system which emphasizes all company strategies and activities. Organizational culture should thus be managed to provide for organizational success.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Racial Profiling

This paper is deprivation to review late(a) studies on racial write and critiques galore(postnominal) of their methods. I will be development the conflict hypothesis to review a number of shipway that dusterthorn explain racial disparities in the rank of discourtesys. Also I will be utilise conflict possibleness to review how it affects pile in society. It addresses the major enigma of in qualifiedity that exists in society today. racial profile in the States is where those in assurance use of goods and services take to the woods agentive role when arresting citizens. racial indite occurs when the constabulary target individual for investigation on the butt of that mortals scat, origin, or heathenity.It has conduct practice of law agencies crosswise the world to start salt away information to the highest degree dealings and unglamorous stops. The contr all oversy over this is that all in all assumptions atomic number 18 hightail it establish. One mora l of this investigate states that police causa the use of feed to lay down decisions during traffic and pedestrian stops. The public is touch on that these decisions reflect racial prejudice, and racism. Many re expecters progress to defend theses profiles, formula that they argon based of ideal facts (Hersezenhorn, 2000 Kennedy, 1997 Taylor amp Whitney, 1999).Other experts constitute tested the accuracy of these profiles, and appease do argued that however if accurate, all decisions based wrap up race is opposed (Harris, 1997, 1999a Kennedy, 1997). there argon two meanings to racial profile. Hard racial indite uses race as the solely factor. E. g. an military policeman analyses a filthy person and places him over for a search and pat-down. flaccid racial indite is using race as one factor among otherwises in criminal suspiciousness. E. g. a report says that a Jamaican drug lord is driving a Jeep, so troopers sop up over black males who argon speeding in Je eps.Even though the driver was speeding, the reason the officer pulled him over instead of the other cars, was due(p) to his race. Minorities argon usually the ones modify by racial indite. harmonise to the public, the war on drugs immediately became a war on minorities. There is differentiate for racial profiling. One is anecdotal, which is a limited value. The other is statistical, which research is entirely worthless. any evaluation of the evidence for the use of race profiling in policing must keep the contexts distinct. Today, bark color stains you a amusing in America. You argon more possible to be topped, searched, be arrested or imprisoned. racial profiling does non besides exist in crime but in our society. People are segregated by race and ethnicity. A genuine race may think that they are wealthier than others. They as well believe that they have more indicant and education than other races. This creates a conflict amidst different races and ethnic c ategoryifys. Class rank in any case conflicts when it write outs to racial profiling. velocity class ideally has more power than pose and lower class. Thus, resulting in a group conflict. Lower and middle class urgency equal protection and power.Whites are usually in the higher(prenominal) rank, and blacks are in lower ranks. Stereotypes besides fall into the category of racial profiling. When we see psyche who is black we mechanically bring they are African. When we see soul who is Hispanic we automatically confiscate their Spanish. When we see an Asian person we automatically acquire their Chinese, and when we see a white person we exact their American. Its the bantam things like this that are considered racial profiling. Most of us dont think that its bad but someone could take it offensively. other way we use racial profiling is when we welcome mass.When you see a nice dressed to kill(p) white male you assume hes wealthy and intelligent. When you meet a black m ale, who is non dressed as nicely, you assume hes a thug, or has dropped out of school. The saying Dont judge a phonograph recording by its spawn not only works for books but for wad as well. The proletariat laws state that no one should be rancid down for a job due to disabilities or their age. Shouldnt this be the same with race, ethnic, and peel off color? In conclusion racial profiling still exists in the United States because we accept it too. It must be stopped, onwards crimes go up.We should not view as decisions off skin color or ethnic backgrounds. Weve come a retentive way and everyone should be seen as equals. Even though racial profiling exists in crimes and police stops, we should make an effort to potpourri this. There are other ways to go to the highest degree fashioning an arrest or sentencing someone to jail. Skin color, ethnic background, and religion should not be factors when decision making to arrest or pull someone over. I believe that if we make an effort to let everyone cognise that racial profiling is still mishap today we can make a balance to prevent it.References redbreast Shepard Engel, Jennifer M Calnon, Thomas J Bernard. Justice every quarter JQ. Highland high school Jun 2002. Vol. 19, Iss. 2 pg. 249, 25 pgs Katy Hurst (2008). http//www. mightystudents. com/ evidence/conflict. theory. explain. 70034 Heather mackintosh Donald (Spring 2001). The Myth of racial compose http//www. city-journal. org/hypertext markup language/11_2_the_myth. html John Reitzel, Alex R. Piquero. Does It be? Studying Citizens Attitudes of racial Profiling http//pqx. sagepub. com/content/9/2/161. mouseRacial ProfilingThis paper is going to review recent studies on racial profiling and critiques many of their methods. I will be using the conflict theory to review a number of ways that may explain racial disparities in the rates of crimes. Also I will be using conflict theory to review how it affects people in society. It addresses the major problem of inequality that exists in society today. Racial profiling in America is where those in authority use race factor when arresting citizens. Racial profiling occurs when the police target someone for investigation on the basis of that persons race, origin, or ethnicity.It has led police agencies across the world to start collecting information about traffic and pedestrian stops. The controversy over this is that all assumptions are race based. One example of this research states that police face the use of race to make decisions during traffic and pedestrian stops. The public is concerned that these decisions reflect racial prejudice, and racism. Many researchers continue to defend theses profiles, saying that they are based of accurate facts (Hersezenhorn, 2000 Kennedy, 1997 Taylor amp Whitney, 1999).Other experts have tested the accuracy of these profiles, and still have argued that even if accurate, all decisions based off race is inappropriate (Harris, 1997, 1999a Kennedy, 1997). There are two meanings to racial profiling. Hard racial profiling uses race as the only factor. E. g. an officer sees a black person and pulls him over for a search and pat-down. Soft racial profiling is using race as one factor among others in criminal suspiciousness. E. g. a report says that a Jamaican drug lord is driving a Jeep, so troopers pull over black males who are speeding in Jeeps.Even though the driver was speeding, the reason the officer pulled him over instead of the other cars, was due to his race. Minorities are usually the ones affected by racial profiling. According to the public, the war on drugs immediately became a war on minorities. There is evidence for racial profiling. One is anecdotal, which is a limited value. The other is statistical, which research is entirely worthless. Any evaluation of the evidence for the use of race profiling in policing must keep the contexts distinct. Today, skin color makes you a suspect in America. You are more l ikely to be topped, searched, be arrested or imprisoned. Racial profiling does not only exist in crime but in our society. People are segregated by race and ethnicity. A certain race may think that they are wealthier than others. They also believe that they have more power and education than other races. This creates a conflict between different races and ethnic groups. Class rank also conflicts when it comes to racial profiling. Upper class ideally has more power than middle and lower class. Thus, resulting in a group conflict. Lower and middle class want equal protection and power.Whites are usually in the higher rank, and blacks are in lower ranks. Stereotypes also fall into the category of racial profiling. When we see someone who is black we automatically assume they are African. When we see someone who is Hispanic we automatically assume their Spanish. When we see an Asian person we automatically assume their Chinese, and when we see a white person we assume their American. It s the little things like this that are considered racial profiling. Most of us dont think that its bad but someone could take it offensively. Another way we use racial profiling is when we meet people.When you see a nice dressed white male you assume hes wealthy and intelligent. When you meet a black male, who is not dressed as nicely, you assume hes a thug, or has dropped out of school. The saying Dont judge a book by its cover not only works for books but for people as well. The labor laws state that no one should be turned down for a job due to disabilities or their age. Shouldnt this be the same with race, ethnic, and skin color? In conclusion racial profiling still exists in the United States because we allow it too. It must be stopped, before crimes go up.We should not make decisions off skin color or ethnic backgrounds. Weve come a long way and everyone should be seen as equals. Even though racial profiling exists in crimes and police stops, we should make an effort to change this. There are other ways to go about making an arrest or sentencing someone to jail. Skin color, ethnic background, and religion should not be factors when deciding to arrest or pull someone over. I believe that if we make an effort to let everyone know that racial profiling is still happening today we can make a difference to prevent it.References Robin Shepard Engel, Jennifer M Calnon, Thomas J Bernard. Justice Quarterly JQ. Highland Heights Jun 2002. Vol. 19, Iss. 2 pg. 249, 25 pgs Katy Hurst (2008). http//www. mightystudents. com/essay/conflict. theory. explain. 70034 Heather Mac Donald (Spring 2001). The Myth of Racial Profiling http//www. city-journal. org/html/11_2_the_myth. html John Reitzel, Alex R. Piquero. Does It Exist? Studying Citizens Attitudes of Racial Profiling http//pqx. sagepub. com/content/9/2/161. abstractRacial ProfilingRacial Profiling Racial profiling has been around for hundreds of years and its still around, but not as bad as it use to be. Racial profil ing is wrong for many different reasons and here is why. For example, racial profiling is wrong because you cant judge someone just because their skin color isnt white. Police officers were often pulling over people of color just for the fun of it. It was humiliating to the people because it do them feel like they were nothing more than a piece of garbage. The police officers didnt take colored people seriously and just did what they wanted. They asked permission to search the car and when he refused they searched it anyway clearly states that the police had no compliancy for colored people and their feelings. Furthermore, racial profiling is wrong because it really does not matter what color skin you have, you can still be a good person at heart. Virtually everybody is innocent, and virtually everybody is not white is a true statement because its not just black and Hispanic people who are in gangs, rob stores, steal cars etc.. its white people to.It makes people feel sad and unl oved, and sometimes pushes them to a point to where they want to commit suicide. Also, it starts fights and arguments and if it goes to far, you end up getting arrested. In reality, everybody makes mistakes. All in all, I feel racial profiling is wrong because if you think about it enough and try and understand what it feels like to be constantly vexed and humiliated, you wouldnt like it either. Hopefully in the future, people stop being anti-Semite(a) and just know everybody is human and everybody has feelings.Racial ProfilingThis paper is going to review recent studies on racial profiling and critiques many of their methods. I will be using the conflict theory to review a number of ways that may explain racial disparities in the rates of crimes. Also I will be using conflict theory to review how it affects people in society. It addresses the major problem of inequality that exists in society today. Racial profiling in America is where those in authority use race factor when arre sting citizens. Racial profiling occurs when the police target someone for investigation on the basis of that persons race, origin, or ethnicity.It has led police agencies across the world to start collecting information about traffic and pedestrian stops. The controversy over this is that all assumptions are race based. One example of this research states that police face the use of race to make decisions during traffic and pedestrian stops. The public is concerned that these decisions reflect racial prejudice, and racism. Many researchers continue to defend theses profiles, saying that they are based of accurate facts (Hersezenhorn, 2000 Kennedy, 1997 Taylor amp Whitney, 1999).Other experts have tested the accuracy of these profiles, and still have argued that even if accurate, all decisions based off race is inappropriate (Harris, 1997, 1999a Kennedy, 1997). There are two meanings to racial profiling. Hard racial profiling uses race as the only factor. E. g. an officer sees a bla ck person and pulls him over for a search and pat-down. Soft racial profiling is using race as one factor among others in criminal suspiciousness. E. g. a report says that a Jamaican drug lord is driving a Jeep, so troopers pull over black males who are speeding in Jeeps.Even though the driver was speeding, the reason the officer pulled him over instead of the other cars, was due to his race. Minorities are usually the ones affected by racial profiling. According to the public, the war on drugs immediately became a war on minorities. There is evidence for racial profiling. One is anecdotal, which is a limited value. The other is statistical, which research is entirely worthless. Any evaluation of the evidence for the use of race profiling in policing must keep the contexts distinct. Today, skin color makes you a suspect in America. You are more likely to be topped, searched, be arrested or imprisoned. Racial profiling does not only exist in crime but in our society. People are segre gated by race and ethnicity. A certain race may think that they are wealthier than others. They also believe that they have more power and education than other races. This creates a conflict between different races and ethnic groups. Class rank also conflicts when it comes to racial profiling. Upper class ideally has more power than middle and lower class. Thus, resulting in a group conflict. Lower and middle class want equal protection and power.Whites are usually in the higher rank, and blacks are in lower ranks. Stereotypes also fall into the category of racial profiling. When we see someone who is black we automatically assume they are African. When we see someone who is Hispanic we automatically assume their Spanish. When we see an Asian person we automatically assume their Chinese, and when we see a white person we assume their American. Its the little things like this that are considered racial profiling. Most of us dont think that its bad but someone could take it offensivel y. Another way we use racial profiling is when we meet people.When you see a nice dressed white male you assume hes wealthy and intelligent. When you meet a black male, who is not dressed as nicely, you assume hes a thug, or has dropped out of school. The saying Dont judge a book by its cover not only works for books but for people as well. The labor laws state that no one should be turned down for a job due to disabilities or their age. Shouldnt this be the same with race, ethnic, and skin color? In conclusion racial profiling still exists in the United States because we allow it too. It must be stopped, before crimes go up.We should not make decisions off skin color or ethnic backgrounds. Weve come a long way and everyone should be seen as equals. Even though racial profiling exists in crimes and police stops, we should make an effort to change this. There are other ways to go about making an arrest or sentencing someone to jail. Skin color, ethnic background, and religion should not be factors when deciding to arrest or pull someone over. I believe that if we make an effort to let everyone know that racial profiling is still happening today we can make a difference to prevent it.References Robin Shepard Engel, Jennifer M Calnon, Thomas J Bernard. Justice Quarterly JQ. Highland Heights Jun 2002. Vol. 19, Iss. 2 pg. 249, 25 pgs Katy Hurst (2008). http//www. mightystudents. com/essay/conflict. theory. explain. 70034 Heather Mac Donald (Spring 2001). The Myth of Racial Profiling http//www. city-journal. org/html/11_2_the_myth. html John Reitzel, Alex R. Piquero. Does It Exist? Studying Citizens Attitudes of Racial Profiling http//pqx. sagepub. com/content/9/2/161. abstract

Canadian History: 1920’s

The 1920s were known as the Roaring mid-twenties because industries shifted to peace time production and experience an economic boom. The people that experienced the tidy times in the 1920s were predominantly the white males. scarcely other groups werent so lucky. There where many growths in this while nevertheless the main one(a)s were the injustice and inequality of women, Native multitude and electric shaverren. During the 1920s the Native commonwealth were treated unequ bothy and with give away justice, out-of-pocket to governing body policies and practices of assimilation, residential indoctrinates and denial of self government.The culture of Canadas Native People was being cut away by the social policy. The Native People ceremonies had been banned and the children had been taken away to government run schools. These schools tried to sop up the children by putting a taboo on Native teachings and traditions. The federal official government limited their freedom. C hief Deskadeh of the Six Nations took his case to the new transnational peacekeeping body the League of Nations (now UN). Although embarrassed by the international fear Ottawa refused to give into. (Hundey) Other Native leaders fought for their rights such as right to vote from the government reservation lands. Many rights were lost due to the stubborn government, but they assuage continued to fight for their freedom. It was difficult for women in the 1920s to receive equal treatment, since women were still considered inferior to men. Although women won semipolitical rights they were still not recognized by the representative government as persons under the law. For example, women could not hold a seat under the Canadian Senate.Some laws changed but the attitude towards womens roles stayed the same. Women were kept back in school, work and politics. It was the same with young girls. Girls did not stay in school as long as boys did. All they learned was about mothering and nursi ng. currently more women started going to university despite the fact that most were held back. From 1891 to 1930 the percentage of undergraduates that were pistillate grew 11. 9%. (Hundey). Although the acceptance of women was rising and more women were going to school, society still saw women only as caregivers and mothers.The exploitation of children was a key issue in the 1920s and was left unresolved for another few decades. Laws allowing child labour passed in the late 19th century were the reason wherefore child labour was widely accepted. Many children tried to stay in school but most left at the age of sixteen to join the workforce. Many farming and fishing families relied on children to help out with the businesses. In the 1920s home children were often exploited. Home children British orphans or members of poor families who were sent to Canada to start a new life. (Hudey) Many of them were overworked and neglected, but this inhuman scheme stopped at the start of The Great Depression. In 1929 children under the age of fourteen were prohibited from working in factories and mines. Children were one of many groups that were exploited and used in the 1920s. Although this practice ended in Canada, some countries in the world still use children as dirt cheap labour. Many groups were not socially accepted by the people experiencing the good times.Native people, children and women were just a few of many others. Natives were not considered equal to the rest of society in the 1920s and were racially disconnected through schools and reserves. Women won rights in the 1920s but still werent considered persons by society and struggled to receive equality. Many children were exploited in the 1920s as cheap labour, but that ended with the decade. Humans are valet and should be treated no differently than others. Humans are all equal and should not be discriminated.