Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Managing Culture Essay

A central number in forethought of organisational goal is how to overcome the Principle-Agent Problem and how to overlay with the institutional theory. If a channel is to effectively deal with an expanding government, it must manage sure that its flori coating is well managed. To do so, organisational managers must have how to prevail over the head teacher Agent problem and the institutional theory. The Principal Agent problem is a description of a conflict of interests that the normal (principle stakeholders, roleholders, etc. ) causes pro leads on the performance of the disposal whereby the agents ( meshees) usually earn unconditional wages.They are parallel but conflicting wants the principle seeks the greatest return for the least pay whereby the agent seeks to do the least run low for the greatest pay. The Principle-Agent Problem is found in umteen employer/employee associations especially when stakeholders employ spinning top executives of corporations (Jackson and Carter 2000). The principle must always settle conflicts amidst organisational objectives and the incentives of the diametric subgroups within the organization. Good managers employ incentives, commands, and organizational stopping point to line sure that this is straind.On the other hand, institutional theory deals with the boneheadeder and more elastic features of social structure. It lays emphasis to the procedures through which structures, regulations, norms, and customs develop as undeviating guiding principles for social behavior. It finds out how these elements are developed, diffused, implemented, and adapted in an organization. The flightiness of Institutional theory and organizational refining is important in organizations. The edifice blocks of institutions and market-gardenings have the strength of carrying with them different meanings eve in a ace organization or culture.Differences in interpretations of reciprocal symbols support the multiplicity o n which cultures flourish and institutions rely. In the theory of organizational culture, issues of diversity are in the main dealt with through studying the different subcultures while institutional theory deals with transmute in institutional logistics (Jackson and Carter 2000). Therefore, the anxiety has a role to play in mediating between these two issues (Principle-Agent Problem the institutional theory).This essay develops the argument that organizational culture tummy and should be managed in corporations in five sections. segmentation 1 defines the meaning of organisational culture Section 2 outlines the importance of organisational culture Section 3 describes how organisational culture can be managed Section 4 describes acculturation and counselling of Organizational Change Section 5 describes the implications for culture worry This essay will therefore show that organizational culture should be managed since it leads to meliorate coordination and integration i n organizations with the give being improved organizational strength.What is Organizational Culture? Organizational culture refers to the set of mutual values, beliefs and expectations that govern the way members of an organization approach their duties in the work egress and interrelate with one another. Research shows that organizational culture is quite different from other world cultures. It lays emphasis on how workers describe their colleagues and the kind of stories they share with one another.According to Schein 1980, organizational culture is a pattern of share basic assumptions that organizational members learn as it solves its problems of extraneous adaptation and indwelling integration that works well enough to be considered valid and, in that locationfore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in tattle to those problems (Schein 198012). The figure below shows that organizational culture is divided into five levels, that is, primeval assumptions, values, behavioral norms, pattern of behavior and Artifacts and Symbols. picFigure 1 Levels of Organizational Culture (Adapted from Schein 1980) Importance of Organizational Culture Literature on organizational effectiveness shows that organizational culture plays a significant role in motive and augmenting the value of intellectuals particularly the employees. The concept of organizational culture is important in familiarity intensive corporations. This paper demonstrates it clear that culture is an essential doer in organizations and helps maximize the value of human resources. Schein 1990 advocates that organizational culture is flat more significant in contemporary organizations than it was in the past.Organizational culture leads to improved coordination and integration in organizations with the result being improved organizational effectiveness. Through organizational culture, an organization is able to process invention and the capacity to successf ully bring in new technologies. Organizational culture likewise enables organizations to effectively control dispersed work units and augment employee diversity. It also allows for cross- heathen perplexity of international ventures and multi-national corporations.Besides the greater need to cope with the external and interior factors, organizational culture has become increasingly important since, for many organizations, intellectual assets now comprise the major source of value. Augmenting the value of workers as intellectual assets calls for a culture that gain grounds their intellectual participation and, eases both personalised and organizational learning. It also calls for the creation and application of new knowledge and the solidification to share new ideas with others (Sennet 1998). Managing Organizational CultureWith the fast changing environment and ongoing insights into organizational efficiency, business organizations are seriously rethinking how they should manag e their cultures to achieve their goals and objectives. It is necessary for these organizations to identify the type of culture that is necessary to accomplish their goals and objectives and make certain the successful execution of the required agitates (Ogbonna and Wilkinson 2003). Culture extends over the drift of management thinking and corporate culture has been one of the most continuing catchphrases of organizational management.The appeal of the context is that corporate culture is ostensibly consolidative and this clearly appeals to managements involvement in forecasting an frame of the corporation as a community of peoples interests. Possibly, culture penetrates to the core of an organization-it is almost similar to the context of personality regarding an individual and the tiny sense of what defines an organization its mission and core values. As a result, the management of culture should become a critical area of management dexterity in organizations.It should, howe ver, be noted that adoption of the best culture is a prerequisite if an organization is to succeed. Managers should determine the most efficient culture for their organization and, if need be how to effectively swap these cultures. The success of contemporary business organizations could be highly attributed to corporate culture. Research shows that organizational culture is a major pointer to organizational performance and this culture can be managed to enhance an organizations competitive advantage. Organizational culture is a good fig for an enterprise whose top management would like to develop.The image of a corporation differs in terms of how one views the organization. Research shows that even organizations with strong cultures have a broad social distance between senior management and employees. Organizational culture is barely planned or predictable it is the ordinary results of social interrelations and, therefore, evolves and emerges with time. As a result, this should b e managed to fit certain strategic ends since organizations have the ability of transforming themselves and the management of culture is such a good way of avoiding such incidents.According to Ogbonna and Wilkinson (2003), organizational culture should be managed as a device for augmenting company effectiveness (Ogbonna and Wilkinson 2003). vigilance of organizational culture can be more readily enumerated and empirically evaluated based on the interpersonal and symbolic features of management. This requires deep qualitative management of the organizational lives of every employee. Managers while managing organizational culture should put into context certain factors such as variety show-oriented culture, education culture, inventive culture and project-oriented culture. solicitude of organizational culture should identify and develop an organizational culture that allows for agility, encourages alliances, companionships and networks promotes knowledge management promotes corpo rate responsibility and proper integrity and incorporates diversity. Culture and Management of Organizational Change If real change is to take place in corporations rather than short-lived change, then it has to take place at the cultural perspective. Organizational culture has many strong attractions as a facilitator for change.Firstly, cultures can be plainly created-managers need to be aware of what is needed to change an already alive culture. The capacity of organizations to be culturally inventive is associated with leadership. The top management in any organization must be responsible for developing powerful cultures. This is because organizational leaders develop the social man of a corporation they shape organizational beliefs and deal with the drama and visual percept of the corporation (Mir and Mir 2009).Research shows that culture is often counter posed to official rationality- In this sense culture is significant in resolving the predicaments associated with bureauc racy in an organization formal procedures are critical for organizational integrity though they also restrain autonomy and invention. Today, organizations are growing in an uncertain manner and the adoption of adaptable cultures that are receptive to change to deal with the changing environment and crises has become essential.Ackroyd and Crowdy, (1990) focus on the family relationship between culture and the management of organizational change through the acculturation of friendly interactions at all levels, the amalgamation of individuals with shared goals and dependence on employee responsibility (Ackroyd and Crowdy 1990). Implications for The Management Of Culture In an Organization Research shows that there are two fundamental approaches to the management of culture in organizations and, by implication, this include strategy conforming (upholding order and continuity) and transforming (altering and breaking already existing patterns).As demonstrated by the successive poor per formance of many companies, the efficiency of the selected approach to corporate culture and strategy depends on the abstract factors relating to both the inner and the exterior business environment. Thus, organizational culture take to be managed though the adopted strategies are highly determined by the prototype and prospect subscribed to by the manager. In coping with the management of organizational culture, it is important to identify as much as attainable the features of the present or new target culture the illusions, symbols, customs and assumptions that affix force to the culture.Consequently, action can be initiated in any of the keystone areas listed below Enrollment, selection and substitution- Culture management can be influenced by making certain that appointments make the existing culture stronger or encourage a culture shift removal and substitution may be used to significantly change the culture of an organization. Socialization- stimulation and successive tr aining and training can lead to acculturation to an already existing or new culture. This can also enhance interpersonal exchange of ideas and team up work, which is vital in fragmented corporate cultures. Performance management/ stipend systems- This can be used to encourage preferred behaviors, which may result to changed organizational values. Leadership- Managers can strengthen or assist in the abolishment of existing illusions, symbols, behaviors, and beliefs. Participation- of all corporate members in cultural rebuilding or management activities and related inputs, decision-making and improvement activities is important if long-term cultural change and management is to be achieved. Interpersonal communication- Meeting the needs of interpersonal interactions is vital in promoting an existing corporate culture and integrating organizational members into that culture. efficient teamwork- This encourages change and developments in cultural communication. Structures, principle s, processes, and resource allocation- This need to be harmonious with the culture of an organization (Boston, Istensaker and Falkenberg 2007). The above represent several strategies that can be used in corporations to manipulate it in terms of the cultures and subcultures that make it up. The management of organizational culture is based on a complicated scholarship of the tacit and explicit features that make up the already existing culture. induction This essay has shown that organizational culture can and should be managed. What makes up organizational culture and its alleged role in corporate success are contested, resting on prospects of culture either as traditionally based, change resilient, deep societal system which emphasizes all company strategies and activities. Organizational culture should thus be managed to provide for organizational success.

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