Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Theories of Child Rearing Styles

Theories of Child Rearing Styles Child Development and Welfare Name: Theresa, C. Eric Table of Contents (Jump to) TAQ2: Child Rearing Styles TAQ3 TAQ4: â€Å"Social learning theory goes beyond conditioning: It goes into the world of learning because of the experiences we have along the way. Discuss† References TAQ2: Child Rearing Styles Child rearing Style 1 Child rearing style 2 Child rearing Style 3 Child rearing Style 4 Name of style Authoritative Permissive Uninvolved Authoritarian Characteristics Parents are democratic Attentive parents Forgiving parents Children are taught proper behaviour Have set of rules Punishment to the children for disobeying the rules and rewards for obedience Parents take on the role of friends No expectations on the child Children are allowed to make their own decisions Neglect of the children Parents put their life before the child’s Parents show little interaction with the children Strict parenting style Parents have high expectations on the children Less communication between parent and children Harsh punishment from the parents No logical reasoning for rules and punishment Effects on the development of child’s conscience Tend to have happier dispositions Have good emotional control and regulation Develop lack of self discipline Become self-centered and demanding Children also lack good social skills Sense of unimportance to the parents Sense of loneliness Lack of self-control Rarely think on their own They feel pressured to conform They become socially withdrawn Effects on later achievement A child is able to develop good social skills Children become self-confident about their abilities to learn new skills. This is important in cognitive development and later achievements of a child. They become good team leaders, team players, and learn to spur each other to success. They believe in collaborative involvement, giving people a second chance, and are likely to perform well in situations that need high level of consultation. Children in this category grow up to be slow decision-makers, and may not be best suited in situations that need swift decisions, characterized by authoritarianism. Tendency to clash with authority Tend to be aggressive and act out Underage drinking due to lack of rules Lack of good manners and ability to apply common sense in normal situations Tendency to develop self-centeredness Such children grow up into irresponsible adults who cannot be trusted with important tasks (Gadeyne, Ghesquiere, Onghena, 2004). They generally become slow in implementing, innovating, and blending in. They have a hard time discerning between what is wrong and right, and may become excessively carefree in nature. Such individuals cannot impose rules, and have them implemented. Conclusively, they do not make good leaders and performers. Show patterns of truancy in school Patterns of delinquency during adolescence Development of uneven behaviours, mainly because of lack of early monitoring and guidance Children lack a sense of guidance Development of â€Å"I don’t-care attitudes†, which greatly affect their behaviour and treatment of others (Gadeyne, Ghesquiere, Onghena, 2004). Inability to form teams, and work in collaborative settings – they become withdrawn from the rest of the crowd Low self esteem Develop fear of failure Develop resentment of authority (Gadeyne, Ghesquiere, Onghena, 2004). They lack great teamwork ability Tend to exercise the same authoritarian rules on the people they interact with, or lead, subconsciously. Such children become fixated with success, meaning a single failure may mean the end of the road for them. TAQ3 The study involves two child rearing styles, which include Baumrind’s Parenting Style Typologies and Maccoby and Martin’s Parenting Style Typologies. These two parenting topologies came into existence following various parenting styles brought into focus by early researchers. These include dominance/submission, acceptance/rejection, responsiveness/unresponsiveness, control/no control, emotionally involved/uninvolved, democratic/autocratic, and restrictiveness/permissiveness (Krause, Parker, Covin, 2013). A study carried out by Baumrind in the years late 1960s and early 1970s proposed three patterns of parenting styles, which differed qualitatively. These included authoritarianism, permissiveness, and authoritativeness. These three styles were based on analyzing parenting in largely middle class, white families. The study by Baumrind engaged thirty-two families which were selected after prolonged observations of the preschool children’s patterns of behaviour in the nursery school setting. It is this study which gave birth to the three parental authority prototypic forms, such as authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. In Baumrind’s later study, several attributes were highlighted pertaining the different parenting topologies. About authoritarian parents he concluded that they try to shape, control, and Evaluate their children’s behaviour based on the absolute set of standards (Krause, Parker, Covin, 2013). He pointed out that parents have high maturity dema nds on their children since they are uncomfortable with their inappropriate behaviours. They do not support the idea of give-and-take, and believe that children should exclusively follow the commands they have been given by parents. This requires that children exercise absolute obedience and this even extends to even when they are socializing. The authoritarian parents do not bend rules at any given moment, and expect strict adherence (Abu, 2013). Such parents constantly demand that their children behave in a mature manner, and they pay less attention to psychological differentiation. These attributes were later updated by Maccoby and Martin (1983) who defined parenting style using two dimensions: parental demandingness (control, supervision, maturity demands) and parental responsiveness (warmth, acceptance, involvement) (Abu, 2013). The interaction between the two dimensions produced four distinct parenting styles. A primary difference between Baumrind’s parenting style typologies and Maccoby and Martin’s parenting style typologies is that Baumrind discussed on â€Å"permissive† parenting while Maccoby and Martin differentiates between two types of permissive parenting. About permissiveness, Baumrind (1971) suggests that parents make little mature demands on their children, as opposed to other parents discussed in the above categories. They use less punishment on their children. Besides, they let their children exercise self-control and make their own judgments. This gives an implication that they tend to tolerate their children’s misb ehaviour. These parents attempt to behave in less punitive and affirmative manner toward their children. They do not assert themselves as agents of modeling behaviour change, but present themselves as tools that can be used by the children to develop any type of desired behaviour (Abu, 2013). In addition, as opposed to other parents, this category of parents does not pay close attention to children while socializing. Thus, such children become non-achievers, since little pressure is exerted on them. These children are comparable to those of authoritarian children, though they differ in the aspect the degree of their achievement. The above findings are similar to those of Park and Bauer (2002), whose main focus was to establish the relationship between students’ academic achievement and parenting styles (As cited in. Krause, Parker, Covin, 2013). The results revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between authoritative parenting style and high school students’ academic achievement. Also shown on this study was a significant negative relationship between authoritarian and permissive parenting style and high school students’ academic achievement. Culture and education has clearly been shown as a factor that strongly influences the relationship between the different types of child rearing topologies. This is backed by the fact that studies carried out in different countries with different cultural setups showed different status of relationships. TAQ4: â€Å"Social learning theory goes beyond conditioning: It goes into the world of learning because of the experiences we have along the way. Discuss† Evolutionary psychologists have always argued that conditioning is an important aspect that shapes human personality. This argument can be derived from the effect of operant conditioning on animal behaviour, and how this has been used to relate to similar effects on humans. Basically, conditioning is a type of learning in which the behaviour of an animal of human being is shaped or largely modified by a series of consequences and antecedents (things that happened there before). It is suggested that behaviour is liable to change in form, strength, and frequency in equal measure. Various types of conditionings have been used to modify/shape animal behaviour. These include operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning), and classical conditioning. The former mainly deals with punishment and reinforcement to bring about the desired behaviour change. On the other hand, the latter deals with behaviours that are modified by reflexes, with respect to antecedent conditions (Anderson, Bushm an, 2001). However, it is not entirely true that conditioning is the major reason behind animal and human behaviour. Social learning theory is much more comprehensive and incorporates many other aspects that shape human and animal behaviour, as discussed in the proceeding sections of this paper. While conditioning mainly centers on using antecedents and experiences as the major tools that shape behaviour, social learning theories posit that there are other aspects that define human and animal behaviour, which go beyond the simple tenets of conditioning. Bandura’s social learning theory outlines that people learn from one another via observation, modeling, and imitation (Fuhrmann, Ravignani, Marshall-Pescini, Whiten, 2014). These three aspects go beyond the fabrics of positive and negative reinforcements, as applied in conditioning. While arguing this point out, it is important to understand what conditioning entails, especially with respect to effects of reinforcements. For instance, positive reinforcement involves rewarding an individual, especially a child, for a good work or performance achieved. It is believed that such reward systems would act as motivating factors for repeat performances. Though this school of thought might hold some weight, to some extent, it fails to take into consideration the basic fact that human and animal motivations are guided by the need to achieve a given goal, and once this is done, such kind of a reward or goal ceases to be a source of motivation. On the other hand, negative reinforcement involves applying punishment and punitive measures in cases of underperformance, or unruly behaviour. While this method of conditioning may be applauded as an effective means of curtailing negative behaviours, it is limited in scope, since the subject being conditioned may develop a lack of response to the punishments being leveled, and outgrow their effect. These points of weaknesses are what bring in Bandura’s social learning theory as an additional explanation to the behaviour development of both animals and humans. Irrespective of the shortfalls of conditioning in shaping human behaviour, social learning theorists have established that it is an important tool that determines how people react and adapt to situations. For instance, through the use of positive reinforcement, a child can be taught to say â€Å"thank you† after receiving a gift, and this may extend into adulthood to become a conditioned behaviour. In a similar note, negative reinforcement could be used to ensure that children learn to say â€Å"please† while addressing others, as show of respect, and courtesy. In cases where such is not applied, then a punishment could be launched. Such measures greatly shape the way people behave when they grow up. Basically, this closely ties with the social learning theory, as posited by Bandura, since this is also based on experiences, imitation, interactions with others, and modeling. Bandura’s theory of social learning has developed largely from conditioning and has, in reality, contributed to further promoting and development of the theory (Bandura, 1963). As aforementioned, the theory depends on such tenets as motivation, imitation, observation, and modeling to achieve the desired behaviour change. In respect to its connection to the theory of conditioning, the aspect of modeling reigns high. For instance, in a school setup, teachers can shape the behaviour of students by modeling the desired behaviour of course of action, through judicious application of both negative and positive reinforcements. A practical example is when a teacher wants to instill a habit of participation in a child (Kumpulainen, Wray, 2002). This can be done by offering gifts, applauding publicly, and many other positive ways. On the other hand, a teacher could curtail a negative behaviour by punishing the child through caning, deducting marks, and many others. Apart from the use o f the dual aspects of reinforcement, behaviour change can also be significantly modeled through guided participation, and imitation. When training a child to be grateful in cases where one has received a gift or any form of help, a parent can repeatedly make the child say â€Å"thank you† in every instance such a scenario is experienced. This repeated learning, and also through observation of what the parent usually does, will instigate imitation behaviour into the child, and later on develop the desired behaviour as modeled by the parent. Such kinds of conditionings are explicitly a derivation of the concept of modeling, as posited by Bandura. In respect to this, it is arguable that Bandura’s social learning theory has developed from the concept of conditioning, and has actually helped to further its arguments. While the theory brings in new concepts that are important in shaping behaviour, it is imperative to note that its main source of argument lies on creating, modeling, and instilling a given desired behaviour into an animal or a human being. This is the same thing that conditioning theory reiterates, which is why it is perfectly right to insinuate that Bandura has helped to promote the arguments put forward by the theory. (Word counts = 2,175 words). References Anderson, C.A.; Bushman, B.J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and pro-social behaviour: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.Psychological Science12(5): 353–359. Bandura, A. (1963).Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Fuhrmann, D., Ravignani, A., Marshall-Pescini, S., Whiten, A. (2014). Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning. Scientific Reports, 4. doi:10.1038/srep05283. Gadeyne, E., Ghesquiere, P., Onghena, P. (2004). Longitudinal relations between parenting and child adjustment in young children. Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, 22, 347-358. Kumpulainen, K., Wray, D. (2002). Classroom Interaction and Social Learning: From Theory to Practice. New York, NY: RoutledgeFalmer. Miller, P. H. (2011).Theories of developmental psychology. New York: Worth Publishers. Krause, R., Parker, O., Covin, J. (2013). Teach your ventures well: a control-based typology of ICV parenting styles.Academy Of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, 534-539. Abu Taleb, T. (2013). Parenting styles and childrens social skills as perceived by Jordanian mothers of preschool children.Early Child Development Care,183(11), 1646. Page 1

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Alcoholism :: essays research papers

The Physical Effects of Alcohol on the Body Alcoholism is a disease which, in many cases, appears to be a genetically transmitted biochemical defect. However, in other instances, it appears to be caused by overwhelming bombardment of the physiology of the body by repeated episodes of heavy drinking resulting in the incapacity to handle alcohol normally. Psychological and/or social pressures may aggravate the disease. It is characterized by a typical progression of drinking behavior that requires an average of twelve and one-half years of drinking to reach fully developed, overt symptoms and an average of eighteen years to reach the stage of deterioration. It is seen most frequently in those of Eskimo or American Indian descent. Among those of Caucasian descent, the Irish, French and Scandinavians exhibit a far higher incidence than do other European population groups. The disease is further characterized by physical damage in all system of the body, the most serious of which is encountered in the cardiovascular system, th e nervous system and the liver. In these three areas the damage may eventually prove fatal. Living the life of an alcoholic is hard work - the body suffers. There is complete unanimity of opinion that alcoholic drinking is very bad for the heart. Not only does the alcoholic suffer increased risk of heart disease, but he may also sustain direct damage to the heart from alcohol. Alcoholic drinking results in: Increased lipid levels which may result in arteriosclerosis and increased risk of stroke and possible early death. Possible development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, resulting from injury to the energy-producing portion of the heart muscle, which may lead to death from heart failure. Damage to the nervous system in alcoholics has been recognized for many years. Some of the possible neurological effects of alcoholism include: Development of diseases caused by vitamin B deficiencies. Impairment of overall mental functioning. Some of the ancient physicians recognized an impairment of overall mental functioning in those who drank excessively and recent brain cell studies suggest that an alcoholic literally kills off brain cells at a more rapid pace than normal. If one destroys brain cells rapidly enough and for a long enough period of time, eventually the "cell bank" of reserves will be depleted, and the subject will begin to show impaired mental functioning. This appears to be the sequence of events observed in the EEG tracings and clinical observations of alcoholics. The gastrointestinal system is prominent among the organ systems damaged by alcohol.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Fast Fashion

Introduction The clothing industry, as one of the most globalizes industries in the world (Fibonacci et al 1994), is currently undergoing a restructuring, especially the fast fashion sector. Fashion markets are synonymous with rapid changes and short product life cycles. Therefore, changes in consumer demand for newness and fashion trend force the emergence of fast fashion' strategy in retailers like Ezra and H;M and shifts in the focus of competitive advantage from price towards quick response.That is to say, clothing firms, which are adopting global or offshore sourcing strategy, are not noninsured to have more competitive advantages as before. However, the question is: should fast fashion retailers adopt quick response strategy instead of overseas sourcing strategy immediately, or adopt both strategies? In the first section, a literature review of the nature of fashion market and related arguments will be introduced. The overseas sourcing strategy and the quick response strategy w ill be explained with examples of existing clothing firms in the second and the third section.The fourth section will compare and contrast the advantage and disadvantages of these two strategies. Combining theoretical knowledge with empirical case studies, it is argued that companies could reach the maximum profit by adopting overseas sourcing strategy as well as quick response strategy. 1 . Literature Review Fashion retailers, such as Ezra, H;M, Benton and Marks ; Spencer have revolutionized the fashion industry by creating a concept of fast fashion'.The change in the culture of fashion from haute couture to fast fashion has attracted numerous researchers to identify and explore the nature of fast fashion market (Tokomak 2008, p. 22, Christopher et al 2004, p. 367, soul and -raccoon 2008, Tactile et al 2008). Accordingly, short life cycles, rapid prototyping and high volatility are identified as the key features of the fashion market. Compared to other industries, apparel product m anufacturing has unique features, for instance, numerous SKIS (stock keeping unit) in a season, hard to estimate customers' demand and wide range of products for basic to fashion items Non 2004).All these unique characteristics require a different approach to production sourcing, Soul and Turn-on (2008) pointed out that fast fashion retailers prefer using an opportunity-pull approach to the traditional designer-push model. By adopting the new approach, retailers could respond to the shifts in the market as quickly as possible. As a result, the more continuous production schedule (eight to twelve fashion ‘seasons') has substituted for the traditional two to four ‘seasons' calendar (Tactile et al 2008, p. 264, Dickens 2011, p. 316).In relation to global production networks, Dickens (2011) identified the ‘core' of a global production network as the circuit of four basic operations, which refers to inputs, transformation, distribution and consumption. Theoretically, th e quicker the production circuit flows, the higher the gross margin the company can gain. When we apply the theory into the clothing industry, the cost of production and the speed to response to changes in consumer demand are equally important. Both of them could contribute to the flow of production circuit.Since numbers of studies have elaborated the benefit of production relocation, the implementation of quick response strategy by fashion retailers has attracted the interest of researchers in recent years (Bristle et al 2003, Perry and Shoal 2000, leer and Bergen 1997). However, results of an exploratory study (Bristle et al 2003) shows that the advantages of quick response strategy have not been fully understood by fashion retailers. They tend to implement quick response strategy for internal supply chain management.Moreover, leer and Bergen (1997) tried to use formal model to examine the impact of quick response strategy on fashion retailers. Although there is companies already adopted both strategies, limited attention has been paid to the combined effect of these two strategies by researchers. Hypothesis: In an era of fast fashion, companies that adopt both global sourcing strategy and quick response strategy have better chance to succeed in the fashion looting market. 2. Cost, the most basic consideration. In order to have higher profit margin, one of the most effective ways is to cut down production costs.In view of the low labor cost in developing countries, global sourcing seems to be a good choice to reduce costs. With the development of global production networks and the increasing competition, fast all fashion clothing firms have shifted their manufacturing operations to low lost locations over the past decades. The shifts in the Shares manufacturer Levi Stratus's global strategy could vividly demonstrate how global sourcing strategy works and affect its supply chain. At first, the company was created in the USA.As it developed and became a global company, they began to employ workers all over the world. However, in face of fierce competition, Levi Strauss started to shift its operation to lower-cost countries in the late sass. By the year 2003, Levi Strauss closed the last four plants in North American and ‘has become an entirely offshore producer' (Dickens 2011 p. 318). The German fashion company Hugo Boss also provides similar example. In face of high production cost, namely high labor cost in domestic market, more and more fashion retailers choose to outsource their production.Moreover, some fast fashion retailers even have no manufacturing competency (Tokomak 2008). The representatives of this kind of retailers are Gap, H&M and Mango. As they do not own any factories, the only way for them do produce their products is outsourcing. The success of these retailers without factories proves the feasibility of global sourcing strategy. By contrast, when most retailers were busy outsourcing their production to lower cost countries, some fast fashion retails still insist on domestic sourcing strategy, for instance, Ezra, Benton and Marks & Spencer.They held the view that ‘market legibility and lean inventories may be more important than cheap labor' (Tokomak 2008). However, could efficiency really overcome the lost in higher production cost? Maybe no one could answer this question. If we take Ezra as an example and find out where Ezra produce the products, we could develop our own view. As a Spanish company owned by Inedited, Ezra produce its products mainly in Spain and Portugal (Wood 2010). Whereas their competitor found suppliers from worldwide low-cost countries, Ezra choose to produce products near its domestic market.That maximizes time efficiency. In fact, the unit labor costs in these two countries were low enough in the sass (Tokomak 2008), therefore, there is no need for Ezra to outsource its productions to other locations. It has the similar competitive advantage as other companies have, besides, by domestic sourcing and producing Just-in-time, Sara's production cycles are much faster than its competitors. In this respect, it is better for Ezra to adopt the domestic sourcing strategy. However, recent years, the geography of Sara's production network has become diverse.Ezra started to outsource and 34 percent of its production was carried out in Asia (Dickens 2011). Similar situation have also occurred in Benton and Marks & Spencer. On one hand, the unit labor cost among European countries has increased in recent years. On the other hand, the supplier firms in countries like Turkey, India and Asia have gained the ability to meet the higher requirement of flexibility and speed. It is inevitable for fast fashion retailers sourcing from these countries. However, companies should also be aware of the potential risks and hidden cost brought by overseas sourcing.Global sourcing strategy requires close coordination of R&D, manufacturing, and marketing activities on a global basis. Managing geographically separated R&D, manufacturing, and marketing activities, those companies face difficult coordination problems of integrating operations and adapting them to different legal, political, and cultural environments in different countries (Daniels et al 2013). Furthermore, separation of manufacturing activities involves an inherent risk that manufacturing in the value chain will gradually becomes neglected.Such neglect can be costly as continued involvement in manufacturing tends to lead to pioneering product design and innovation over time. An effective global sourcing strategy calls for continual forts to streamline manufacturing without sacrificing marketing flexibility. 3. Time, the growing consideration. With the wide spread of fast fashion' principle, fast fashion retailers are aware of the importance of efficiency. They notice that consumer demand is changing more rapidly and customers more discerning about quality and choice.Although a substan tial cost advantage can be gained by adopting overseas sourcing strategy, it cannot compress time in the supply system. To solve this problem, companies tend to choose the quick response strategy, which focuses on providing shorter lead times. According to Bristle et al (2003), quick response strategy was first developed as a result of the need to compete with offshore manufacturers in the USA. The quick response strategy emphasizes on flexibility and product velocity and relies on a measure of trust in sharing information (Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006 p. 63). In addition, while maximizing the diversity of products, quick response could minimize lead-times, expenditure, cost and stock of inventory. Quick response is not merely about reducing lead-time by the use of domestic or nearby sourcing strategy, it also involves the ability to gather latest information and use real-time data to understand the needs of the consumers. To some extent, quick response help to shorten the product cycle times and decrease risks and inventories at each stage of manufacturing and retailing operations.The Spanish Ezra, as mentioned before, is ‘an excellent example of a vertically integrated retailer using quick response methods' (Bristle et al 2003). Despite successful application of the concept â€Å"fast fashion† in H;M and Top Shop, Ezra utilizes the â€Å"fast fashion† strategy in all aspects dominant, fast fashion in Ezra meaner, within only two weeks from concept to sales faster than any other company. Unlike most of its competitors, Ezra still produces most of the products in Spain and Portugal and only outsource basic items in lower cost countries.By adopting quick response strategy, Ezra focused on creating a short, flexible, tight and innovative supply chain and tried to balance the higher labor cost by shorter (3-6 weeks) lead times. As a result, Sara's short deliveries have made it ‘as much as 12 times faster than the competition' (Newsweek 2001, p. 36, cited in Tokomak 2008, p. 30). Ezra launches almost 11000 new products in a year, which meaner the update speed is about two or three times a week. In 2005, sales grew by 21 percent over the prior fiscal year in Ezra, which makes Inedited ahead of H&M for the first time (Daniel et al 2013).The good result indicates that domestic sourcing still works as long as the company finds out a way to compensate for the losses in production cost. Having witnessed the successful experience of Ezra, competitors started to follow the lead of Ezra. For instance, Benton now replenishes stores once a week, Forever 21 Inc. And Unique are able to get new products in store thin 6 weeks (Ordered and Johnson 2008). Another example that worth to be mentioned is the Next brand in the ELK. Base on the quick response strategy, the company uses a limited edition approach to accelerate the update speed.Moreover, in order to respond to the changes in demand as soon as possible, next has even purcha sed part of a multi-national clothing supplier to enable constantly changing ranges by reducing lead time (Bristle et al 2003). As we can learn from the case studies, time becomes a priority consideration in the fashion market. The adoption of quick response method should be able to make manufacturer to ‘adjust the reduction of different styles, colors and sizes in response to retail sales during the season' (Seen 2007). 4.Comparison between overseas sourcing strategy and quick response strategy One of the biggest differences is that overseas sourcing strategy uses cost as a competitive weapon while quick response strategy uses time. As we known, both cost and time are the keys for retailers to gain more market share and profit; The dilemma for fast fashion companies is: Whether fashion retailers should outsource production overseas for lower production cost or keep manufacturing nearby to facilitate speed. As highlighted earlier, the fashion market is volatile and unpredictab le.Quick response strategy emerges in such an environment. Compared to overseas sourcing strategy, which faces long transport times and difficulty in controlling over production, quick response strategy enables retailers to cope with uncertainty or changes in the fashion market. On the other hand, although domestic sourcing provides companies from paying for higher logistic cost and other hidden costs, offshore sourcing secures lower cost inputs, (Christopher et al 2004). It is argued that fast fashion companies need to adopt strategies that optimally mix overseas sourcing ND quick response to win the market.The changes occurred in Marks & Spencer over these years could help us understand the advantages and disadvantages of both strategies. As a major British retailer, it chooses to use local suppliers for decades. However, in face of the downward pressure on price, it abandoned its domestic sourcing strategy and started to relocate production overseas (Christopher et al 2006). Acco rdingly, the average hourly labor cost in the I-J is nine times higher than in Morocco and even nineteen times higher than in China, Pakistan and Indonesia.After adopting oversea suppliers, Marks & Spencer on noticed that they overlooked the related problems, such as the cost of transportation, the need to forecast styles, colors and volumes in advance and the risk of stock inventory. Facing the challenge of adopting global sourcing, Marks & Spencer tend to use â€Å"dual supply chains†. By combing global sourcing strategy and quick response strategy, â€Å"fashionable items† are manufactured in locations with a journey time no more than four days.For â€Å"basic items†, for which demand is easier to be predicted, Marks & Spencer continue producing them in lower cost locations (Christopher et al 2006). Likewise, Ezra has also adopted both strategies for its supply chain. Today, price is no longer the determined factor that concerned by customers. Many companies consider not simply price but also quality, reliability, and technology of components and products to be procured. These companies design their sourcing decision on the basis of the interplay between their competitive advantages and the comparative advantages of various sourcing locations for long-term gains.By contrast, they care more about the quality, design and the level of popularity. Therefore, companies have to find the balance between cost and time. If fast fashion tillers make good use of these two strategies, like M&S and Ezra did, the negative effect could be covered to a large extent. Conclusion Volatile markets, short product lifestyles and high product variety are the characteristics of today are clothing industry. This essay mainly discusses the adoption of two common strategies- global sourcing strategy and quick response strategy, in fast fashion clothing sector.Although most companies already have chosen outsourcing strategy to maintain the competitive advantage, t he nature of today's fashion market forces companies to consider the importance of speed and flexibility. The analysis of both strategies with the help of real companies' experience shows that both of them have positive and negative effects on fast fashion retailers. However, overseas sourcing strategy and quick response strategy are not mutually exclusive. In practice, the successful examples of M&S and Ezra have proved the feasibility of combing global sourcing with quick response strategy.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Examples Of Green Light In The Great Gatsby - 954 Words

Green Light â€Å"It had seemed as close as a star to the moon.† A star and moon, close and far, both in outer space, with only one thing that sets them apart, distance. In a symbolic way, dreams relate with this example. Every person is a star that is trying to reach the moon or a dream. In The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald depicts the American Dream as untrue through Jay Gatsby’s persistence, difficulties, and corruption, to grant his desires. (pg.93) Jay Gatsby is in love with Daisy a wealthy woman married to another man, Tom. Although, Gatsby has not seen Daisy for five years he is still hopeful one day he will reencounter her. Therefore, he does everything at his disposition to prove Daisy his love. Gatsby, a wealthy†¦show more content†¦Nick is shock after listening all Gatsby does for Daisy with the hope of seeing her once more. This story conveys a profound effect on Nick, which feels the need of taking action in helping them. Therefore, the next day he meet s with Gatsby, Nick tells him he is going to call Daisy and invite her to his house for tea. Gatsby is so grateful with Nick that he wants to return the favor, so he offers him a tempting job where he can earn much money. Gatsby says, â€Å"Well this would interest you. It would not take up much of your time and you might pick up a nice bit of money. It happens to be a rather confidential sort of thing† (pg.83). Eventually, throughout the story it becomes evident Gatsby’s confidential business is corrupt; his desire to see Daisy makes him a fraud. Luckily, Nick rejects Gatsby’s offers and assures him he is only granting Gatsby a favor and does not want nothing in return. (pg. 82-83). After five years of waiting, the so expected day for Gatsby finally arrives. Gatsby’s excitement for Daisy’s arrival becomes evident when he wants everything to look perfect, even Nick’s garden. 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Scott Fitzgerald, is a significant symbol which reflects Gatsbys dream and other aspects beyond Gatsbys longing.   Throughout the novel Fitzgerald uses many other images or symbols.   At first, it may seem very basic, but when the symbol is closely studied, one may see the deeper meaning found within it. Fitzgerald uses these symbols to make a point across to the readerRead MoreSymbolism In The Great Gatsby1082 Words   |  5 Pages The novel â€Å"The Great Gatsby† written by F. Scott Fitzgerald was based upon a love/drama romance. Throughout the novel Fitzgerald uses symbols to represent something in a much deeper meaning. One of the main characters, Jay Gatsby can be described by many different symbols. These symboles tell a much bigger story than what they are actually read as. There can be a range of different symbols that Fitzgerald uses ranging from different colors to different locations. Both of them have a huge impactRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1248 Words   |  5 PagesIn The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, symbolism plays a major role in the continuation of the plot. Symbolism in this novel uncovers emotional backstories of the main characters, shows why the characters make the choices they do, and the difference of the meaning of certai n objects in the novel. Although there are many different symbols in The Great Gatsby, the ones that stick out the most are the green light, the eyes of T.J. Eckleburg, and the Valley of Ashes. Each symbol can have many differentRead MoreGreen Light Symbolism In The Great Gatsby877 Words   |  4 PagesThe Great Gatsby symbolizes a major part of whats so called the â€Å"American Dream.† But what is Fitzgeralds assertion on the American Dream? The Great Gatsby by Scott Fitzgerald, delivers a perspective of the American society in the 1920s, also the American Dream and It’s mysteries. There are many symbolizes throughout the novel, for example, the bright green light Gatsby gazes from across the oceanside of his Mansion - â€Å"I glanced seaward—and distinguished nothing except a single green light, minuteRead MoreThe Gatby And The Setting Of The Great Gatsby887 Words   |  4 Pages The setting of the Great Gatsby takes place during the summer of 1922, in The Roaring Twenties in West and East Egg of Long Island. At this time the world has just came out of a period of chaos, which leads to a time of a new society. America was going through an era of industrialism. This resulted in division among classes possessing different amounts of wealth. America entered the era of Prohibition creating a rise in the black market. People ended up replacing social classesRead More The Great Gatsby by F.Scott Fitzgerald. Essay1313 Words   |  6 PagesThe Great Gatsby by F.Scott Fitzgerald. F. Scott Fitzgerald aims to show that the myth of the American dream is fading away. The American values of brotherhood and peace have been eradicated and replaced with ideas of immediate prosperity and wealth. Fitzgerald feels that the dream is no longer experienced and that the dream has been perverted with greed and malice. The Great Gatsby parallels the dreams of America with the dream of Jay Gatsby in order to show the fallacies that lie in bothRead More Discuss Fitzgerald’s use of symbols within The Great Gatsby.1018 Words   |  5 PagesDiscuss Fitzgerald’s use of symbols within The Great Gatsby. Throughout his novel ‘The Great Gatsby’, F. Scott Fitzgerald uses symbolism. Symbols are objects, characters, figures or colours used to represent abstract ideas or concepts. The first symbol we see appears at the end of Chapter one. It is a green light, situated at the end of Daisy Buchanan’s East Egg dock and is only just visible from Gatsby’s expansive West Egg back garden. In Chapter one Nick (the narrator) describes hisRead MoreSymbolism And Symbolism Of The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald993 Words   |  4 PagesConte Roe H English 10 December 2012 In every piece of great literature authors use symbols to convey a feeling or thought. The novel, For example, Lord the Flies, William Golding memorably uses a conch shell to represent order and the destruction of order. Or in To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee uses the physical and metaphoric sense of the mockingbird to convey the idea of innocence and the loss of innocence. In The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald employs the use of symbols to enhance aRead MoreEssay Symbolism in The Great Gatsby864 Words   |  4 PagesIn the novel, The Great Gatsby, there is lots of reflection on symbolism, and especially colored symbolism. In this novel symbolism is a very important factor, it shows the difference between the different characters and scenes in the novel. The color green influences the story a lot. Green shows many thoughts, ideas, attitudes, and choices that Gatsby has throughout the story. White too plays an even more important role in the novel as it is used to represent s ome of the characters, it also talks