Wednesday, November 27, 2019
buy custom The Schuman Declaration essay The Schuman Declaration was proposed and declared by the then Foreign minister for France, Robert Schuman, in May 1950. It led to the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the predecessor to the European Union (EU). The main aim was to create organization and economic links between European countries with an overall objective of fostering peace and diplomatic relations. The Schuman Declaration not only fostered peace but also ruled out the eventuality of war among European nations. As Gowland states, war was not only unthinkable, but (also) materially impossible. Europe, having experienced the Second World War, was keen to redevelop and revamp its institutions in order to ensure prosperity. If any rapid economic growth was to be achieved, there was a need to obtain coal and steel cheaply and easily from neighboring countries. Most of these resources were already available in Germany, a country that distrusted its fellow European countries for the chief reason that they were in opposition during the War. The European Coal and Steel Community ensured that Germany was recognized as an equal trading partner across Europe. An irrevocable tie was thus created via a supranational union. Describe the general international situation at the time of the Schuman Declaration. Europe had just experienced the Second World War and there was great distrust among European nations, more so between Germany and the rest of the European nations. The two World Wars had almost split the continent apart and had seen a lot of bloodshed, financial losses and widespread destruction on both sides. In addition, there were fears about the possible emergence of a Third World War due to the escalating Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. Hence, there was a need to come up with a supranational community that would create sufficient momentum for the European nations to gel as partners in order to withstand any looming crises. On the other hand, Germany recognized that the French distrusted them deeply and they feared the return of German natonalism. Chancellor Adenaur, the then German Chancellor, understood these difficulties. He shrewdly adopted the plan in order to advance Western Germanys desire for equality and sovereignty without raising suspicion. Through regional integration, Germany would be accepted as an equal member, therefore facilitating its reconstruction and rehabilitation. Explain what Schuman meant when he said: The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany. Any action taken must in the first pace concern these two countries. The Second World War had led to a division between the then European superpowers. After Germany was defeated by the Allied forces and the war came to an end, Europe was in need of reconstruction. For these to successfully take place, age-old enmity and mistrust had to be laid aside. The success of the Schuman Plan was heavily dependent on this. In addition, for the plan to be accepted internationally, three key actors needed to approve of the document: Germany, France and the United States. Although the United States was a major economic powerhouse and a world superpower that could not be ignored, the approval of the Schuman Declaration lay at the hands of the French and the Germans. Whereas it granted the Germans a means to re-establish their credentials across Europe and a viable method via which it could abolish all domestic and foreign policy controls, it availed a means through which the French could stamp their authority as an European power in addition to gaining protection fr om Germany, as was traditionally the case. Therefore, the Schuman Declaration overturned previous French concepts. Instead of fighting in order to gain control over an enemy, the Declaration availed a means via which both nations would treat each other as equals. What community was set up because of this Declaration and how was it run? The Schuman Declaration proposes that all coal and steel produced by France and Germany be placed under a higher authority. The production, distribution and marketing of these vital elements would be placed under the jurisdiction of this body and would be independent of the states governments. The higher authority was the precursor to the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). The Schuman Declaration was open for other European countries to join. Hence, in April 1951, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium signed a treaty that led to the inception of the community. The ECSC was created under the treaty of Paris and run by a higher authority. Checks were performed by bodies elected by member states, Members of Parliament from the member states and the Court of Justice. The higher authority was an independent, executive and supranational body that was charged with the responsibility of drafting and overseeing policies within the jurisdiction of the ECSC. Its headquarters were located in Luxembourg. What were the objectives of this community? (as described in this declaration) The objectives of the ECSC can be derived from the Schuman Declaration. First, the declaration marked the onset of a unified Europe. Struggling to re-build various institutions, the community availed a means via which countries would quickly regain their status before the war. Secondly, the community aimed at fostering world peace and eliminating any eventualities of war between member states. This ensured that there would be no Third World War or inter-state wars. Thirdly, it created a common market across member countries. Raw materials produced in one country could be easily sold to a member state. Therefore, it lifted trade barriers. For instance, the rapid revitalization of the steel and coal sector led to the rapid economic expansion among member states. Finally, it led to a step-by-step redevelopment strategy that fostered democracy. Notably, the ECSC led to the dissolution of the Iron Curtain which existed between Eastern and Western Europe. This not only widened the market f or European communities but also led to deeper diplomatic ties amongst member nations. Buy custom The Schuman Declaration essay
Saturday, November 23, 2019
The Spanish Conquistadors From the moment of Christopher Columbus discovery of lands previously unknown to Europe in 1492, the New World captured the imagination of European adventurers. Thousands of men came to the New World to seek fortune, glory, and land. For two centuries, these men explored the New World, conquering any native people they came across in the name of the King of Spain (and the hope of gold). They came to be known as the conquistadors. Who were these men? Definition of Conquistador The word conquistador comes from Spanish and means he who conquers. The conquistadors were those men who took up arms to conquer, subjugate, and convert native populations in the New World. Who Were the Conquistadors? Conquistadors came from all over Europe. Some were German, Greek, Flemish, and so on, but most of them came from Spain, particularly southern and southwestern Spain. The conquistadors typically came from families ranging from the poor to the lower nobility. The very high-born rarely needed to set off in search of adventure. Conquistadors had to have some money to purchase the tools of their trade, such as weapons, armor, and horses. Many of them were veteran professional soldiers who had fought for Spain in other wars, like the reconquest of the Moors (1482-1492) or the Italian Wars (1494-1559). Pedro de Alvarado was a typical example. He was from the province of Extremadura in southwestern Spain and was the younger son of a minor noble family. He could not expect any inheritance, but his family had enough money to purchase good weapons and armor for him. He came to the New World in 1510 specifically to seek his fortune as a conquistador. Armies Although most of the conquistadors were professional soldiers, they werent necessarily well-organized. They were not a standing army in the sense that we think of it. In the New World, at least, they were more like mercenaries. They were free to join any expedition they wanted to and could theoretically leave at any time, although they tended to see things through. They were organized by units. Footmen, harquebusiers, cavalry, and so on served under trusted captains who were responsible to the expedition leader. Conquistador Expeditions Expeditions, such as Pizarros Inca campaign or the countless searches for the city of El Dorado, were expensive and privately financed (although the King still expected his 20 percent cut of any valuables discovered). Sometimes the conquistadors themselves chipped in funds for an expedition in the hopes that it would discover great wealth. Investors were also involved: wealthy men who would provision and equip an expedition expecting a share of the spoils if it discovered and looted a rich native kingdom. There was some bureaucracy involved, as well. A group of conquistadors could not just pick up their swords and head off into the jungle. They had to secure official written and signed permission from certain colonial officials first. Weapons and Armor Armor and weapons were crucially important for a conquistador. Footmen had heavy armor and swords made of fine Toledo steel if they could afford them. Crossbowmen had their crossbows, tricky weapons which they had to keep in good working order. The most common firearm at the time was the harquebus, a heavy, slow-to-load rifle. Most expeditions had at least a few harquebusiers along. In Mexico, most conquistadors eventually abandoned their heavy armor in favor of the lighter, padded protection the Mexicans used. Horsemen used lances and swords. Larger campaigns might have some artillerymen and cannons along, as well as shot and powder. Loot and the Encomienda System Some conquistadors claimed that they were attacking the New World natives to spread Christianity and save the natives from damnation. Many of the conquistadors were, indeed, religious men. However, the conquistadors were far more interested in gold and loot. The Aztecs and Inca Empires were rich in gold, silver, precious stones, and other things the Spanish found less valuable, like brilliant clothes made of bird feathers. Conquistadors who participated in any successful campaign were given shares based on many factors. The king and the expedition leader (like Hernan Cortes) each received 20 percent of all loot. After that, it was divided up among the men. Officers and horsemen got a larger cut than foot soldiers, as did crossbowmen, harquebusiers, and artillerymen. After the King, officers, and other soldiers had all gotten their cut, there was often not much left for the common soldiers. One prize which could be used to buy off conquistadors was the gift of an encomienda. An encomienda was land given to a conquistador, usually with natives already living there. The word encomienda comes from a Spanish verb meaning to entrust. In theory, the conquistador or colonial official receiving an encomienda had the duty of providing protection and religious instruction to the natives on his land. In return, the natives would work in mines, produce food or trade goods, and so on. In practice, it was little more than slavery. Abuses The historical record abounds in examples of conquistadors murdering and tormenting native populations, and these horrors are far too numerous to list here. Defender of the Indies Fray BartolomÃ © de las Casas listed many of them in his Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies. The native populations of many Caribbean islands, such as Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico, were essentially wiped out by a combination of conquistador abuses and European diseases. During the conquest of Mexico, Cortes ordered a massacre of Cholulan noblemen. Only months later, Cortes lieutenant Pedro De Alvarado would do the same thing in Tenochtitlan. There are countless accounts of Spaniards torturing and murdering natives to obtain the location of the gold. One common technique was to burn the soles of someones feet to get them to talk. One example was Emperor CuauhtÃ ©moc of the Mexica, whose feet were burned by the Spanish to make him tell them where they could find more gold. Famous Conquistadors Famous conquistadors who have been remembered in history include Francisco Pizarro, Juan Pizarro, Hernando Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, Diego Velazquez de Cuellar, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Juan Ponce de Leon, Panfilo de Narvaez, Lope de Aguirre, and Francisco de Orellana. Legacy At the time of the conquest, Spanish soldiers were among the finest in the world. Spanish veterans from dozens of Europeans battlefields flocked to the New World, bringing their weapons, experience, and tactics with them. Their deadly combination of greed, religious zeal, ruthlessness, and superior weaponry proved too much for native armies to handle, especially when combined with lethal European diseases, such as smallpox, which decimated native ranks. Conquistadors left their marks culturally as well. They destroyed temples, melted down golden works of art, and burned native books and codices. Defeated natives were usually enslaved via the encomienda system, which persisted long enough to leave a cultural imprint on Mexico and Peru. The gold the conquistadors sent back to Spain began a Golden Age of imperial expansion, art, architecture, and culture. Sources Diaz del Castillo, Bernal. The Conquest of New Spain. Penguin Classics, John M. Cohen (Translator), Paperback, Penguin Books, August 30, 1963. Hassig, Ross. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control. The Civilization of the American Indian Series, First Edition Edition, University of Oklahoma Press, September 15, 1995. Las Casas, BartolomÃ © de. The Devastation of the Indies: A Brief Account. Herma Briffault (Translator), Bill Donovan (Introduction), 1st Edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, February 1, 1992. Levy, Buddy. Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs. Paperback, 6/28/09 edition, Bantam, July 28, 2009. Thomas, Hugh. Conquest: Cortes, Montezuma, and the Fall of Old Mexico. Paperback, Reprint edition, Simon Schuster, April 7, 1995.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
E-Commerce Strategies - Essay Example The strategies used are comparable to those used by companies that sell to businesses, having both similarities and differences. Apart from using the above strategies they companies are benefitted because an organization or business can easily locate more customers, the best suppliers and the most suitable business partners across the globe. The shipment is often in large quantities, and heavy machinery may be required to package products into bulks. This is because websites following B2B business model sell their products to intermediate buyers, and then they sell their products to the final customer, which can be any wholesalerÃ¢â¬â¢s retail outlet (Haag & Cummings 2013). The IT mechanisms used by both are similar. Payment for both involves transaction systems use non-cash payment including PayPal, Gift Cards, and VISA etc. Security mechanisms make use of SSL (Security Socket Layer) which uses encryption and authentication which prevents large business and thus large companies being part of an external hack or
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Frederick Douglass on the Failure of Religion - Essay Example Douglass criticized the mishandling and squandering of our forefathers commitment to liberty as generations lavished in the memory of the revolution without bearing the burden of its responsibility. He praises the principles of freedom, liberty, and morality that our nation was built upon. Yet, he uses the opportunity to remind his audience that liberty was a concept that been abandoned by its religious leaders, and for those left in bondage it was not a day to celebrate freedom, but a day to recognize the difficult road that lie ahead of all America. Douglass framed his speech with the understanding that there were two Americas. The two Americas were split by the deep foundation of liberty and the oppressive nature of slavery. Recognizing that the two could not exist as one, Douglass remarks on the division when he talks of, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a sad sense of the disparity between us. I am not included within the pale of this glorious anniversary!Ã¢â¬ . Douglass lived in his America, where the Fourth of July was not a day of celebration, but a day to remember and honor those that were left behind in shackles. One of Douglass's main targets in his eloquent speech was religion and its failure to address the slavery issue. Douglass does not argue the merits and evils of slavery, but rather takes the stand that there can be no valid argument for slavery. He logically contends, "There is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven, that does not know that slavery is wrong for him". Slavery was a horrifying nightmare and Douglass's description shows it for the injustice it was. He makes no attempt to persuade the audience of its wrongs, but rather uses the opportunity to denounce the American religious community and their religious leaders for their engagement in slavery as well as their neglect of the issue. This was the greatest hypocrisy and the greatest threat to the liberty of all men that Douglass took aim at. His well founded, fiery words chastised religious leaders for wasting the religious freedom the nation had gained by turning their backs on the very tenets that Christianity was built on . The implications of the Compromise of 1850 were fresh on the mind of Douglass as he spoke of the legalized hunting of man that was known as the Fugitive Slave Law. He bemoaned the rewards that judges would reap by the successful consignment and return of fugitive slaves and decried the taking of men away from their wives and families to be ripped away and returned to a life of indentured misery. The Compromise had been a deal with the devil as the North sought to placate Southern discontent by condoning their excesses into the practice of slavery. Douglass drew a picture that portrayed America as the most immoral nation on earth and its abuses in excess of all others in the world. America's flawed reasoning of welcoming fugitives from all around the world and casting great honor on them as courageous men stood in sharp contrast to the treatment of the fugitives from American oppression that were are hunted down like common animals kidnapped, tortured, and murdered. He places the Fugitive Slave Law in its rightful historical perspective as he denounces it as being "In glaring violation of justice  this Fugitive Slave Law stands alone in the annals of tyrannical legislation". Douglass's viewpoint was that never had mankind been so terrible and never had the church been so blinded by sin. Religion's failure to tackle and oppose slavery, and the Fugitive Slave Law, was seen by him to be the greatest blasphemy ever put forth. Douglass pleads with the audience to denounce slavery and rebuke the slave holders,
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Stopping bullying in schools Essay It is sometimes difficult to understand how schools can provide the environment for bullying to take place yet they are very well supervised. Bullying however is carried out secretly and in hidden areas and adults including parents and teachers are not able to notice when it is going on. Other reasons that make it hard to detect is the fact that the school staff may see it as harmless play and therefore decide not to intervene. There may also be lack of enough supervisory settings that could lead to detecting the behavior in its likely occurrences (Wright, 2003). a) Laws on Bullying Anti bullying legislation has been developed to help curb the rise and spread of bullying within the school environment. The legislation provides for firm and fair enforcement of discipline within the school and security measures that provide for a climate that does not allow for bullying and threat making. The laws have been developed to help the school administratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ deal with the issue. They require the schools to develop anti bullying policies and programs (Clabough, 2010). A national legislation that is against bullying has been proposed to make it mandatory for all schools to have these programs and policies that will help reduce the bullying incidents. The laws have been developed to emphasis to the schools that much is not being done to deal with bullying and that more needs to be done since bullying is an important issue that is affecting the schools. The laws are allowing for various legal actions to be taken up against the bullies who are reported to have bullied a fellow student. The legal action to be taken depends on the type of offence that has been reported (Clabough, 2010). For example where the offence reported involved included threatening the victim, legal action can be taken for threatening behavior and this is treated as a criminal offence. When the bullied acts involve sexual assault towards the victim, the legal action can be taken against indecent assault which is also treated as a criminal offence. An offence of common assault is charged against the bully when the victim was physically abused. Legal action may also include applying for an injunction against the bullies to prevent them from bullying the victim. The injunction can be used to instill fear upon the bully and hence stopping them from bullying the victim. Legal action however is only carried out if the actions of the bully are in more that two separate occasions and they are constant and ongoing. Evidence has to be gathered to prove the harassment and it must show that it led to severe damages to the victim (Clabough, 2010). The two offences of indecent assault and common assault can also be carried out without touching the victim. b) Their importance The anti bully legislation is very important in reducing the cases of bullying in the schools when everything has failed. The law can help sensitize the issue and teach the parents and teachers the need and importance of stopping the bullying behavior as it leads to severe consequences that are long term in some cases. The teachers and staff at the schools are taught how to identify and deal with bullying cases and establish effective strategies that enable the children report the cases of bullying within the school (Antibullying, n. d). The laws can also be used to teach and educate the children on bullying the strategies and types of bullies that are in existence and how they can deal. The laws can also help curb the spread of the practice to other areas like the work places and other environments outside the school environment. Bullies can also be helped since most of them end up committing other crimes in the adulthood (Dombeck, n. d). The consequences of bullying can also be reduced especially where they are long term and severe like in the cases of suicides and psychological impacts on the children. c) Suicides by Children The need for these laws has been necessitated by the increase in the number of suicides cases that have been reported. One case in particular is the case of Phoebe Prince, a 15 year student who committed suicide after she was continuously bullied by her new classmates for over 3 months (Rota, 2010). She had continuously been harassed verbally and physically by nine of her classmates, six of whom have been charged in court since the incident happened (ODowd, 2010). She had been a student of South Hadley High School located in Massachusetts, and had endured a lot of cyber bullying through popular websites like facebook, Twitter, Craigslist and Form spring and she also received threatening messages on her cell phone (Clabough, 2010). In school things had been thrown at her, while her face had been scribbled in her photographs that were hung on the school walls. The parents and the school officials had not done enough to stop the bullying even though they knew of the extent it had gone into. They had instead turned away and assumed a mentality of kids will be kids that led to the suicide. This was one of the cases that led to the Massachusetts anti bully legislation that was to curb such incidents from occurring (GLAD, 2010). d) Long Term Psychological Impact Bullying has been known to lead to long term effects that affect the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s psychology. Some of the effects of bullying include self esteem problems that may cause the adult to think lowly of them selves (Dombeck, n. d). They also tend to avoid social situations due to the interpersonal difficulties that they experience. Some of the victims of school bullying have reduced occupational opportunities since they do not get the chance to perform well in school. They have lingering bitterness and desires to seek revenge against the bullies. Some tend to have a lot of difficulty trusting people and they do not make many friends. They therefore tend to be lonely even in their adult life. In some cases the victims of school bullying continue to be bullied even in their work places and in other areas even in their adult life (Dombeck, n. d). e) Helping the Victim Overcome Victims of school bullying are usually very sad and deeply unhappy when they are in school (Banks, 1997). They suffer from low self esteem since they are usually self rejected by the classmates. There are various that the school can help the victims overcome the bullying and prevent it from occurring to them again. The first step of intervening is to ensure the victims safety. The victims are usually weaker than the bullies and hence they are not able to face the bullies on their own. The victims can be monitored when they are in schools to identify the times that they are bullied (Wright, 2003). The victim can also be encouraged to make friends with other students who will influence him or her positively. This will help increase the self esteem and confidence of the victim. As the victim makes more friends they may be able to help him when they are being bullied. They can be taught basic social skills to enable them make more friends. Mentors can also be allocated to the children who are bullied to be able to monitor them and protect them from the bullies (Wright, 2003). Victims can also be taught some skill that can they can use to stand up to the bullies especially when they abuse is verbal. The parents of the victims can help the children to overcome the effects of bullying. The parents can become more involved in the lives of the child to ensure that they are able to notice the instances of bullying. They can help the child speak out when they are being bullied. Counseling can also help the child deal with the psychological effects of bullying such as depression, low self esteem and anxiety. They can therefore be able to deal with the anger that they may feel against the bullies and the need to seek revenge (Dombeck, n. d). f) Helping Bullies Bullying is normally carried out in a secretive manner and can be difficult to identify within the schools (Wright, 2003). Teachers and school administrators may not be aware of how it is carried out. They must therefore assess the seriousness of the behavior and ensure that the students are aware of the seriousness of the matter. They should also be aware of the consequences of bullying and the charges that exist for bullies. If the bullies continue threatening the lives of the other students the teachers and the school administrators should now come up with ways to help the bullies turn around their behaviors. They can confront the bullies in a firm and fair manner that will not provoke them. They can communicate to the bullies without threatening them and give stern warnings that their behavior will not be tolerated. More stern measures can be put up if the bullies do not change their behavior. The confrontations should be carried out in private to ensure that they bully does not become defiant and refuse to compliance (Wright, 2003). To encourage them to change their behavior they can be rewarded if the cases for bullying reduce. Parents can be involved in the process to establish the reasons that lead the children to bully others. Where the reasons are based on the environment at home the parents can be involved in the process of reforming the behaviors of the bullies. Counseling can be used to help the children deal with the issues at home and reduce their chances of taking out their problems or anger on other students (Banks, 1997).
Friday, November 15, 2019
Carbon Dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that occurs in small quantities in the earth's atmosphere naturally. The earth's ocean, soil, plants and animals release CO2. The formula of Carbon Dioxide is CO2. The CO2 molecule contains 2 oxygen atoms that each share 2 electrons with a carbon atom to form 2 carbon - oxygen double bonds. The atoms are arranged as so (OHT). This is called a 'linear molecule'. Carbon dioxide is commonly found as a gas and is never a liquid. It sublimes to a solid known as 'dry ice' which is used as a substitute for normal ice as it is a lot colder and doesn't melt. Humans and animals breathe out Carbon Dioxide, often referred to as the greenhouse gas, as a waste product. Plants take in this CO2 and use it to make food. This is called photosynthesis. During this process oxygen is released which is then breathed in by humans and animals. This procedure is repeated over and over and a natural balance is obtained. However this natural balance is disrupted by human activity. People of the world are putting more than 5.5 billion tons of CO2 into the atmosphere every year. 75% of this is caused from the burning of fossil fuels. These fuels are burnt all the time to run factories, power plants and vehicles. The main sources of CO2 emissions are electric utilities, residential buildings, industry and transportation. The other 25% is induced by the destruction of the world's forests. The reason for this is that there are less trees and plants to take in the CO2 but there is just as many, if not more, humans and animals to breathe it out. The amount of CO2 in a planet's atmosphere affects the temperature of the planet. As more and more CO2 builds up in the atmosphere, less heat can escape and the planet gets hotter. The CO2 traps radiation from the sun like a greenhouse. This is called global warming or the greenhouse effect. Global warming is becoming a serious problem and CO2 is the major cause. The earth is now warmer than it has been in 1000's of years. The amount of CO2 deposited in the earth's atmosphere from human activities is expected to double by the year 2050. It could possible increase by four in the future with developing countries, such as China, anxious to improve their standard of living.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Global Health Nursing Primary Health Care/Primary Care This discussion will cover the demographic trends that impact global health today, look at patterns of health and disease that impact global health, explain the difference between primary health care and primary care, and review the World Health Organizations (WHO) priority for global health. There are many factors that affect global health including population, environment, and disease. One of the greatest pressures on the global community is the growing population. This demographic trend has a great impact on global health.The global population was 2. 8 billion in 1955 and is 5. 8 billion now. It will increase to about 8 billion by the year 2025. Average life expectancy at birth in 1955 was just 48 years; in 1995 it was 65 years; in 2025 it will reach 73 years (World Health Organization [WHO], 2012). The increasing population means more people living in urban areas; therefore the closer we live together the increased chance of disease and illness. The added people also puts an increased stress on the environment leading to air pollution, water contamination, and less land to depend on for food.The growing numbers presents a threat to health and the economy of many nations. In developing counties, malnutrition and disease are problematic; whereas in developed countries overcrowding leads to pollution, disease, and violence. With increasingly dense living arrangements and global travel, the health of the general populations is threatened by environmental factors and disease, for example, the H1N1 influenza pandemic (Nies & McEwen, 2011, p. 270). Mortality rate, based on disease patterns, vary throughout the world.The biggest difference depends on if it is in a developed country or a developing country. Of 57 million deaths worldwide in one year, 33 million are from noncommunicable disease, 18 million are from communicable diseases, and 5 million are from injuries and violence (Nies & McEwen, 2011, p. 271). Developed countries have the highest mortality rate of chronic disease patterns such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease, stroke, violence, and traumatic injury. While developing countries have the highest mortality rates of infection, malnutrition, and violence.Developed countries are able to reduce mortality rate due to diseases by improving sanitation and immunization through community health. As a country becomes developed, an epidemiological change occurs from risk of infection and malnutrition to having chronic disease. In developing countries, infectious diseases that contribute to high rates of mortality include acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis, endemic malaria, hepatitis B, rheumatic heart disease, parasitic infection, and dengue fever. Yet, these diseases could be reduced by 50% through effective public health interventions (Nies & McEwen, 2011, p. 71). When we discuss the global community, some tend to get the terms primary healt h care and primary care confused. Primary health care refers to essential services that support a healthy life including access, availability, service delivery, community participation, and the citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to health care. In contrast, primary care refers to first-line or point-of-access medical and nursing care controlled by providers and focused on the individual (Nies & McEwen, 2011, p. 276). In developing countries focusing on the individual in not realistic, the main focus is on the group, therefore primary health care is first priority.One must meet the basic needs such as safe drinking water and food before we can provide individual care. Promoting health worldwide is a great challenge. Several agencies play a part in accomplishing this goal, including the WHO. The WHO stated a goal of Ã¢â¬Å"health for all by the year 2000Ã¢â¬ back in the 70Ã¢â¬â¢s. This goal was then extended to 2010 once it was unattained. Working for the WHO as a nurse would require one to open their mind and think more broadly. The main focus would be solving the problems of the health care delivery system (Nies & McEwen, 2011, p. 275) in order to accomplish the stated goal.As nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ we need to look at the comparison between developed and developing counties because there is much we can learn. There is a need for health care reform, and the goal of Ã¢â¬Å"health for allÃ¢â¬ should guide this. Cuba and Canada were both recognized for reaching the goal of Ã¢â¬Å"health for allÃ¢â¬ . Collective responsibility or population-based focus must be established with less emphasis on the individual (Nies & McEwen, 2011, p. 275). Prevention is the first line of defense for the reduction of disease and illness. As a nurse working for the WHO, my main focus would be health care reform. Read also: The Advantage of Free Health CareNursing, as the pivotal health care profession, is well positioned to advocate on behalf of, and in concert with, individuals, families, and communities who are in desperate need of a well-financed, functional, and coordinated health care system that provides safe, high-quality care. Accessible, affordable, and high-quality health care will positively contribute to our individual health, the strength of society, our national well-being, and overall productivity (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2008, p. 4). References American Nurses Association. (2008). ANAÃ¢â¬â¢s health system reform agenda.Retrieved from http://www. nursingworld. org/Content/HealthcareandPolicyIssues/Agenda/ANAsHealthSystemReformAgenda. pdf Nies, M. A. , & McEwen, M. (2011). Globalization and international health. In Community/public health nursing: promoting the health of populations (5th ed. , p. 269-283). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Sanders. World Health Organization. (2012). Global health observatory. Retrieved from http://www. who. int/gho/ncd/mortality_morbidity/ncd_total/en/index. html World Health Organization. (2012). The world health report. Retrieved from http://www. who. int/whr/1998/media_centre/50facts/en/
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Antigone and Creon, from Ã¢â¬Å"AntigoneÃ¢â¬ by Sophocles, encounter a philosophical war based on their moral views. A conflict arose when the principles that backed up their actions disagreed with each other. AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s side of the conflict held a godsÃ¢â¬â¢ law is the way approach, as opposed to the Ã¢â¬Å"I am kingÃ¢â¬ approach Creon chose to follow. The variation in the beliefs, opinions, and moral views of Antigone and Creon were constantly disputed through out the play. Antigone felt that Creon was disregarding the laws of gods through his law. After she was captured and brought to Creon, she told him, Ã¢â¬Å"Your edict, King was strong, but all your strength is weakness itself against the immortal unrecorded laws of God. They are not merely now: they were, and shall be, operative for ever, beyond man utterly.Ã¢â¬ AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion is one that supports the Gods and the laws of heaven. Her view is set by her belief that if someone is not given a proper burial, then that person would not be accepted into heaven. Antigone was a very religious person, and acceptance of her brother by the Gods was very important to her. She felt that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I will bury him; and if I must die, I say that this crime is holy: I shall lie down with him in death, and I shall be as dear to him as he to me.Ã¢â¬ CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s order was personal to Antigone, as she saw his law as invading her family life as well as offensive to the Gods. In AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, Creon betrayed the laws of the Gods by not allowing her to properly bury her brother, Polynices. She believed that the burial was a sacred ritual, and Creon did not have the authority to refuse Polynices his entitlement. AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s strong belief towards the burial of her brother is what led her to her death by the hands of Creon. Since Creon was ruler, whatever he said was the law, and since Antigone broke his law, Creon was in a sense to blame, because if that law wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t put into effect then Antigone wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have hung herself. Nevertheless, she did not stop defending what she thought was proper. Right before her death, Antigone exclaimed, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ you see me now, the last unhappy daughter of a line of kings, your kings, led away to death. You will remember what things I suffer and at what menÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, because I would notÃ transgress the laws of heaven.Ã¢â¬ She feels that Creon is abusing his power as king and dealing with her task on a personal level. CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were based off of the fact that, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ no ruler can expect complete loyalty from his subjects until he has been tested in office.Ã¢â¬ PolynicesÃ¢â¬â¢ body left unburied is a symbol of CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s action to achieve the loyalty that he desired. Ã¢â¬Å"As long as I am King, no traitor is going to be honored with the loyal man.Ã¢â¬ Leaving the body unburied was done to show respect for Thebes, not in spite of the family. After all, how could the ruler of a kingdom honor a man who attempted to invade and conquer what is now his kingdom. This was far from the beliefs of Antigone. She believed that everyone deserved the right to have a proper burial, no matter what wrong doing that person may have done, and that the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ are the authorities that judge the afterlife. Due to this belief, Creon turned Antigone into his prisoner, and not the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s. The general population actually supported Antigone, but though they were too scared to stand against Creon. Haimon knew of this and told his father, Ã¢â¬Å"Died so shameful a death for a generous act: Ã¢â¬ËShe covered her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Is this indecent? She kept him from dogs and vultures. Is this a crime? Death? Ã¢â¬â She should have all the honor that we can give her!Ã¢â¬â¢ This is the way they talk out there in the city.Ã¢â¬ Creon was exercising complete domination of political power. By not allowing Antigone to perform her religious ceremony of burying her brother is interfering with religious affairs. This act denied Antigone of her religious freedom. Creon had to weigh each factor carefully, and had to decide between his morals and his beliefs. He was torn, trying to choose what was just. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Oh it is hard to give in! But it is worse to risk everything for stubborn pride.Ã¢â¬ The conflict of beliefs was what led to AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s, HaimonÃ¢â¬â¢s, and MegareusÃ¢â¬â¢ death. Both sides were just, but Creon was forced to decide and determine right from wrong when there was no clear answer. In the end, the ChorusÃ¢â¬â¢ opinion was the determining factor and they convinced Creon to set Antigone free, but it was already too late. The conflict between the beliefs of Creon and Antigone are layered throughout the play. Both have logical arguments, but neither dominates the other. Antigone is motivated by her strong religious feelings, while Creon is trying to be lawful and do whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right for his kingdom. Neither won this battle, as Antigone took her life, the lives of CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and son followed, leaving Creon with nothing but his precious kingdom.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Return of Martin Guerre By: Natalie Davis The story was based in the early 1550Ã¢â¬â¢s, a young peasant, Martin Guerre from Artigat had left his wife Bertrande and their son Sanxi and their inheritance to seek adventure in Spain as a mercenary. After leaving his family for nearly nine years a man claiming to be Martin returns to the village to claim his wife and land. Bertrande accepts the man as being her husband and they have another child together. Martin has a dispute with Pierre over the management of the family estate and ownership of the rents from Matins land during his absence. During their dispute a passing by veteran had claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"MartinÃ¢â¬ is not who he claims to be. He said that Martin had lost a leg at the battle of Saint Quentin and that he really was Arnaud de Tihl from a neighboring village. Both Martin and Arnaud had soldered together in the war, where they had became friends. The Guerre family was very divided over the story. Pierre and his sons -in-law believe the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s story, and Pierres daughters and Bertrande continue to believe Ã¢â¬Å"MartinÃ¢â¬ is Martin. As their case was being heard before a judge (Coras), a man with a wooden leg enters the courtroom. The man enters right before the judge was going to free him. The man claims to be Martin Guerre. The judges were then forced to determine who the real Martin was. After having certain people look at them and ask them both questions. They figured out that the man claiming to be Ã¢â¬Å"MartinÃ¢â¬ wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t and his name was Arnaud. He was convicted of being an imposter and later was executed for the crime. Now the village had resolved the dispute. How did Bertrande seek freedom? Family- She was willing to go against her own family to seek a better, happier life. She had lied about him being her husband, because she felt that Arnaud treated her better. She wanted to be totally feed from her old marriage, and she wanted to be treated better and have a b etter life wit... Free Essays on Martin Guerre Free Essays on Martin Guerre The Return of Martin Guerre By: Natalie Davis The story was based in the early 1550Ã¢â¬â¢s, a young peasant, Martin Guerre from Artigat had left his wife Bertrande and their son Sanxi and their inheritance to seek adventure in Spain as a mercenary. After leaving his family for nearly nine years a man claiming to be Martin returns to the village to claim his wife and land. Bertrande accepts the man as being her husband and they have another child together. Martin has a dispute with Pierre over the management of the family estate and ownership of the rents from Matins land during his absence. During their dispute a passing by veteran had claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"MartinÃ¢â¬ is not who he claims to be. He said that Martin had lost a leg at the battle of Saint Quentin and that he really was Arnaud de Tihl from a neighboring village. Both Martin and Arnaud had soldered together in the war, where they had became friends. The Guerre family was very divided over the story. Pierre and his sons -in-law believe the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s story, and Pierres daughters and Bertrande continue to believe Ã¢â¬Å"MartinÃ¢â¬ is Martin. As their case was being heard before a judge (Coras), a man with a wooden leg enters the courtroom. The man enters right before the judge was going to free him. The man claims to be Martin Guerre. The judges were then forced to determine who the real Martin was. After having certain people look at them and ask them both questions. They figured out that the man claiming to be Ã¢â¬Å"MartinÃ¢â¬ wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t and his name was Arnaud. He was convicted of being an imposter and later was executed for the crime. Now the village had resolved the dispute. How did Bertrande seek freedom? Family- She was willing to go against her own family to seek a better, happier life. She had lied about him being her husband, because she felt that Arnaud treated her better. She wanted to be totally feed from her old marriage, and she wanted to be treated better and have a b etter life wit...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
French Phrases Related to Mardi Gras Mardi Gras is an annual celebration called le mardi gras (literally, Fat Tuesday) or le carnaval in French. It is celebrated all around the world. Les Dates de Mardi Gras (Mardi Gras Dates) Mardi Gras takes place 46 days before Easter (le PÃ ¢ques) - that is, sometime between February 3 and March 9. Mardi Gras is the day before Lent (le carÃ ªme), which begins on Ash Wednesday (le mercredi des Cendres). The most famous Mardi Gras celebration is held in New Orleans (la Nouvelle-OrlÃ ©ans), but many cities in Europe and the Americas also put on spectacular events. Les Couleurs de Mardi Gras (Mardi Gras Colors) Mardi Gras has three official colors:le violetÃ Ã Ã purple (justice)lorÃ Ã Ã gold (power)le vertÃ Ã Ã green (faith) Les Traditions de Mardi Gras (Mardi Gras Traditions) Mardi Gras is traditionally celebrated with a parade led by a captain, during which trinkets, or throws, are tossed to the crowd. The parade is followed by a costume ball presided over by a king and queen. Le Vocabulaire de Mardi Gras (Mardi Gras Vocabulary) une babioleÃ Ã Ã trinketun bal masquÃ ©Ã Ã Ã costume ballun bijouÃ Ã Ã jewelle capitaineÃ Ã Ã captainun charÃ Ã Ã floatun collierÃ Ã Ã necklaceun costumeÃ Ã Ã costumele courirÃ Ã Ã Mardi gras runune couronneÃ Ã Ã crownun dÃ ©filÃ ©Ã Ã Ã paradeun dÃ ©guisementÃ Ã Ã disguiseun doublonÃ Ã Ã doubloonune effigieÃ Ã Ã effigyun feu de joieÃ Ã Ã bonfireun flambeauÃ Ã Ã torchla fouleÃ Ã Ã crowdun kreweÃ Ã Ã krewe (Mardi gras organizer)un mardi grasÃ Ã Ã a person who really gets into celebrating Mardi grasle masqueÃ Ã mask (make a Mardi gras mask)une pailletteÃ Ã Ã sequinune perleÃ Ã Ã beadla plumeÃ Ã Ã featherla reineÃ Ã Ã queenle roiÃ Ã Ã kingFrench expressions with mardi gras Le Slogan de Mardi Gras (Mardi Gras Slogan) Mardi Gras slogan is Let the good times roll, which is translated literally into French as Laissez les bons temps rouler.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The Rationale of the Case Study Research Method - Coursework Example It is widely applied as a valuable method in the study of psychology and health sciences in order to develop a theory, design and evaluate interventions. (Baxter & Jack, 2008) A case study approach is used when it is needed to explore a phenomenon within its context and through the variety of lenses. The following enables researchers to reveal and comprehend different facets of an event or a situation and develop a full understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. Moreover, due to the fact that researchers have little or no influences on the course of case studies, they allow for the flexibility and do not demand rigorous planning. As a result, case studies can produce unexpected findings and encourage researchers to reorient their studies and direct them to the right conclusions while saving from making incorrect assumptions. (Baxter & Jack, 2008) In addition, it is reasonable to resort to the case study method when a research is aimed at answering such questions as Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"whyÃ¢â¬ something is happening and when the issue to be investigated is current. Among the main advantages of the case study approach can be named the possibility to collect significant amounts of details and in-depth data that could be left without attention when applying other methods. Also, case studies are extremely useful when large samples of participants are not available or there is a lack of previous research on the given topic. (Case study research, 2009) In this context, case studies appear to be useful when making an insight into unique and unusual situations that cannot be otherwise studied due to ethical or some practical considerations. Subsequently, a case study can help to generate new hypotheses and innovations as well as challenge theoretical assumptions and study the rare phenomenon.
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Impact of Nursing Shortage on the Healthcare Industry - Research Paper Example Population Aging and Increase Demand of NurseÃ¢â¬â¢s 13 2. Variety of Career Options 13 3. Healthcare Cost Demands 13 4. Financial Assistance 14 5. Work Environment and Workload 14 Research Question 14 Chapter 2: Literature Review 14 Introduction 14 Nursing Staff Shortage and the Hospital Management 15 The Financial Crises and Nurse Shortages 15 Nursing Shortage Solution 16 Future Recommendation 17 Conclusion 18 Chapter 3: Methodology 19 Introduction 19 Evaluation Methods and Tools 19 Reliability and Validity 20 Maintenance of Data Integrity 20 Research Design 22 Research Methods 23 Participants in the Research 24 Obtaining of Permission 25 Chapter 4: Data analysis 26 Introduction 26 Results 27 List of Tables Table 1: Results List of figures Figure 1: Nurses rating based on customer satisfaction Figure 2: National Supply and Demand projections for FTE RNs, 2000 to 2015 Chapter 1: Introduction to the Problem Introduction The shortage of acute care nurses had been one of the primary concerns in the healthcare industry across the world. The issue created a substantial impact on the fitness activities efficiency in hospitals and healthcare centers. Several studies have shown that the nursing graduates entering in the nursing profession and those who are still in the occupation were not enough to facilitate the hospitals and patients. The healthcare professional shortage was one of the chief impediments in the achievement of United NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Millennium Development goals to remove poverty, hunger, improvement of education systems, reduction in morbidity, and mortality as written in the guidelines of the year 2004 that are provided by the international nursing council (Littlejohn, Campbell & Collins-McNeil, 2012). The problem of shortage of acute care nurses had a relation to the past historical staffing, appointment, resources, nursing demand estimation, and nursing concerns for healthcare services of a country. The issue of shortage of nurses was not easily measureable and demands extraordinary planning and requirements. The relative shortages involved the accessibility of qualified and skilled professionals for the vacancy; however, they did not meet other criteria for employment (Dinsdale, 2004). The absolute shortage represents a situation that lacked availability of skilled people for a particular vacancy. The shortages may include the impact of fair consideration, geographical position, retention, and recruitment challenges meeting the replacement demands. The challenges to resolve nurse related issues included coordinated policies and package development to provide long term and sustained solutions (Buchan & Aiken, 2008). The nursing requirement could be fulfilled through the promotion of education as well as by the availability of facilities for the professional nurses to deliver sufficient care to patients. It could further assist in improving the community health and to attract more clients to the healthcare industries. Accord ing to the Ã¢â¬Å"Health Resources and Services AdministrationÃ¢â¬ HRSA report (2006) it was expected that the shortage of nurses would elevate up to one million till the year 2020. The