Thursday, December 26, 2019

Defiance a Film Directed by Edward Zwick - 1281 Words

Defiance is a 2008 American docudrama film starring Daniel Craig and directed by Edward Zwick. The plot takes place in Western Europe has Tuvia Bielski and his brothers lead a Jewish partisan group against Nazi forces in the struggle for their lives. The group saved more than 1200 Jews from Nazi persecution and would be one of the most successful Jewish resistance groups during WW2. The movie is well done involving multiple elements and a high dose of action and adrenaline. Defiance generally did well in theatres and was well approved by critics; and WELL displays some of the events of the Holocaust. The bitter winter brings sickness, starvation, betrayal, and constant hiding, afterwards the group learns of an oncoming heavy German†¦show more content†¦They spent no less than two years under the shelter of the forests of Poland; Tuvia, the eldest often sent scouts to infiltrate and recruit new members of the group from the nearby ghettos to the Naliboki forest. The group’s policy of accepting all would inflate the mass of the group to over 1200 Jews but only a small amount (about 150) of the group would engage in armed combat and operation has most of the population was woman, children, and seniors (70%).They lived in underground bunkers and established basic infrastructure and utility building; kitchen, mill, bathhouse, bakery, medical clinic, quarantine for those with infectious illness/disease and small livestock of cows provided milk. Members of the group had useful trade skills in making goods, repairs, and providing logistical support; this service was also extended to the nearby Soviet partisans. They were well known among partisans for their workshop of 125 workers which included; tailors, shoemakers, metalworkers, tanners, carpenters, leatherworkers, hat makers, barbers, watch makers completed daily repairs, new products, and other useful services for the group and guests. Most children attended the dugout school. Bielski partisans would often target Nazis and their combatants including disloyal local police forces and performed sabotage missions which made them a nuisance to the Nazi government (which offered 100 000 bounty for the capture of Tuvia in 1943). To solve this issue the NazisShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Movie Defiance 1050 Words   |  5 Pages Defiance is a movie written, directed and produced by Edward Zwick. This movie’s setting is in Nazi occupied territory in Belarus during World War II. The storyline follows the Bielski brothers as they attempt to evade capture and fight for their lives, and over the course of the movie, the lives of twelve hundred other Jewish survivors on their quest for life, liberty and the new promised land. The film features Daniel Craig as Tuvia Bielski, Liev Schreiber as Zus Bielski, Jamie Bell as AsaelRead More`` Defiance `` By Edward Zwick1614 Words   |  7 Pagesstory, â€Å"Defiance,† directed by Edward Zwick, is an extraordinary and insightful tale about the lives of three brothers that take refuge in the woods for survival against the Nazis. In the beginning, their main goal was to keep alive by also avenging the deaths of their parents, however as the movie progresses, their mission turns into something far more bigger. They began to find other Jews who come hoping to join them in their quest for survival, while looking to them as their leaders. The film entailsRead MoreThe Film Adaptation Of Defiance By Nechama Tec2285 Words   |  10 PagesIn the Modern Age, adaptation of stories of film has become commonplace in the film industry. These films seek to bring stories into the visual spectrum, so that we can not only learn these stories but also get the feel of what the people went through. Defiance written by Nechama Tec, tells the stories of the Bielski Brothers and their struggle for survival in the second World War. The Bielski Brothers created a community in the woods under the leadership of Tuvia Bielski, a community that welcomeRead MoreLiterature : The 21st Century6619 Words   |  27 PagesConnections – 21st Literature The 21st Century, the time period that we all live in today, smothered in continuous social, economic and political issues. An interesting era for films of this genre is the late 1930’s to early 1940’s which we see reflections in the literature today. War World 2 was a turning point in history and was a time of sheer horror in many places such as Spain, Germany, Poland and Eastern Europe. In today’s age, contemporary literature writers often draw their inspiration and

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The s Cultural And Sociological Values - 1106 Words

Ecstacy.MDA. Nutmeg. A ubiquitous spice that can be found in kitchens worldwide, nutmeg has been harnessed in cooking, rituals, and a multitude of different ways across multiple cultures for millennia (Baxamusa, 2011). Its most common use in near day-to-day cooking is something that is not given a lot of thought to, but with Drug culture becoming increasingly prevalent in younger demographics, nutmeg has become a cheap and easily sourced alternative (Shafer, 2010). Through analysis of its chemical components, its structures and properties, in comparison to other illicit drugs such as MDMA (Ecstasy) and MDA (3, 4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine), credence can be given to the relationship between its popularity rise in youth culture, and its†¦show more content†¦Exotic and Aromatic, nutmeg became monopolized by the Dutch in the early 1600’s after the massacring the islands native population (AUBREY, 2012). Here the first plantations of the spice were established and all othe r sources which could pose a threat to the economic assets of the Dutch were eradicated. Prior to this, it had been considered a rare commodity predominantly throughout Europe, Asia and the Middle East, where its earliest uses were traced back for Indian medicinal purposes around 700 B.C.E (Nagano, 2009). Nutmeg was sought by the rich, for its potency to induce hallucination ‒ which can now be related to the prevailing substances that are found in its oils. These oils are what give basis to nutmegs association with madness. The links between nutmeg and madness, or rather the symptoms of being in an altered physical and mental state, correlates to the molecular composition of nutmeg’s oils. Specifically, nutmeg consists of numerous psychoactive compounds that have been found in its fixed oils (24 – 40%), known also as the butter as well as in the volatile oils (5-15%) of the total sample (Nagano, 2009). The most influential and common compounds as the cause for these effects being: Myristicin (13.57%), Safrole (4.28%) and Elemicin (1.42%). Estimated to account for 20% of the oils within nutmeg (Muchtaridi, Subarnas, Apriyantono, Mustarichie, 2010), each of these molecules

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Projecting Future Smoking Prevalence †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Projecting Future Smoking Prevalence. Answer: Introduction: The status of health for indigenous people often depend on their political, social, and unique historical circumstances. It also depends on the interactions these indigenous people have with the non-indigenous population. Maoris travelled to New Zealand through the Pacific 1010 years ago. Initially only a few Maoris arrived but never a formal data was maintained about the settlement. It was in the 1840s that the treaty of Waitangi was signed with British Government that was aimed protecting and maintaining the interests of the indigenous population. The Treaty of Waitangi was signed in the year 1840 by the representatives of the Crown (The British Monarchy) and chiefs of the Maoris. This treaty gave the Maoris ownership of their lands but it also create an influx of the British nationals (Came et al., 2016).. This caused a decrease in the indigenous Maoris population. Since the 70s the public realized that the treaty was not supporting the interests of Maoris as it is supposed to do. As there were is a significant difference in life expectancies of Non Maoris and Maoris. After reaching a low point it was in the year 1896 that the Maoris population started to increase. Many programmes that were run by the government along with the appointment of the Maoris health inspectors helped in contributing to this recovery. In the past decades the demand and self-determination of the Maori people along with the introduction of programme initiatives and social policies have targeted the aspirations and needs of the Maori. In the year 2004 Portrait of Health Report showed that in the year 2002-2003 health survey, 12, 929 New Zealanders took part along with 4369 Maoris that showed that Non-Maoris rated their health higher than Maoris. This survey focused on vitality, energy, breathing, mental health, general health, hearing, vision, communication, selfcare, social functionality, usual activities, and pain. The New Zealand government introduced The Primary Health Care Strateg y or PHCS in the year 2001 that aimed at improving health and reducing inequalities. It was in the year 2002 that Primary Health organizations like Te Kupenga o Hoturoa Charitable Trust and TaPasefika Health Trust were established in the Counties Manukau District Health Board or DHB. By the year 2006 about 81 PHOs were established and were in operation that had 4 Million Whanau members that were enrolled. In New Zealand community action based projects such as housing, welfare, environment and housing have increased during the current government. Disparities among the Non- Maoris and Maoris has been evident in the colonial history of New Zealand. Various components in a complex mix are responsible for these differences. Since the starting of the 90s decade New Zealand has recognized the need to reduce the health inequalities through the use of cultural, social and economic determinants of health. Studies have shown that colonization, alienation and dispossession have had a negative impact on Maori health. Statistics, measures and studies have documented the status of the Maori people facing systematic disparities in healthcare. In order to understand the factors of the health disparities we have to first understand the Maoris philosophy of health. They have health models that incorporate the health and wellness of a being. Te Whare Tapa Wh? model is about Taha Tinara that refers to physical health, Taha Wairua that refers to spiritual health, Taha Wh?nau that refers to family health and lastly Taha Hinengarothat refers to mental health. The model of Te Whare Tapa Wh? conveys the importance of balance. They explain how even when one of the dimensions goes missing the whole balance is lost and the person becomes ill. This was model was created for the recognition of the spiritual element involved in being healthy and now it is used in mainstream health models. Another Maori health model is Te Pae M?hutonga that uses the image of the southern cross to show the six issues in Maori health promotion. It highlight how Mauriora or cultural identity is related to Waiora or physical environment, Toiora or healthy lif estyle and Te Oranga or participation in the society. Another model of Te Wheke is about the traditional Maori perspectives of the connection in between the spirit, the whanau or family, the physical world and the mind. They complain how western medicines has caused a separation between the connection. He Pou Oranga Tangata Whenua is the model that was developed in order to ensure that the Maoris traditional institutions, knowledge, and values are recognized for health and wellbeing (toiora). This model creates a direct connection between social determinants and health. These social determinants included culture, language, education and resources. This model also provides the ways practices and actions which can help achieve healthy society. Maori health promotion is based on the fact of enabling the Maori population to strengthen their community and identity and to increase their control on the determinants of health. This only provides the nature of the health promotion for the Maoris but we need to consider two main models of health for the Maoris. One being the Te Pae Mahutonga which is about the creation of an environment that facilitates the human potential(Durie, 2000). This model identifies two prerequisites for health promotion in Maori population. These prerequisites are ng? manukura or leadership and te mana whakahaereor autonomy. The leadership prerequisite is about the importance of community leadership and how the community leadership is crucial for the successful implementation of any intervention. Through this model they are highlighting the fact that health promotion interventions should include community leadership, tribal leadership, health leadership, cooperative relationships and open communication b etween key groups and leaders. Autonomy prerequisite is about the need to provide the community with the control of the health intervention. The Te Pae Mahutonga model is about providing Maoris the access to the social domain in the society where they have the adequate opportunities to express their culture. They should have equal access to services and goods of the society. Since the 20th century the Maori leadership is playing a crucial role in health promotion with in the community. Maoris believe in the measure of self-governing which is quite evident in the Ranui Project (RAP) which was set with the aim of enhancing the wellbeing and health of Ranui people had a particular focus on young children, families and children. The Ranui population is diverse with the inclusion of Pacific and Maori people. They have a young profile as more than 50% of the population is under 15 years. They are low income community that have issues such as poor access of health, unemployment, transient school roll, and housing issues. This project is jointly funded by the CYF or the Department of Child, Youth and Family and SCAF (Stronger Community Action Fund. This project is about identifying the issues of health, and acting on these issues with the help of strategies(Adams, 2005). RAP was established as a project that was community based in terms of self-governing entity that is focused in recognizing the local issues and needs. Local members were the initial members who took part i n negotiations related to funds. These people found approaches that were tailored for the Maori people. The representatives of the community were at first suspicious of the intentions of the funders so an evaluation plan was developed and involved a group of local members that evaluated the project. This evaluation in the initial level helped assisted in the successful programmed implementation. This evaluation helped as a mentor or a critical friend to the project workers. Events and meeting served as an observation points for monitoring the progress of the project. This shows that their prerequisite of autonomy is to give the control of the health intervention to the community. The outcome of the project was measured through interviews with informants that were indirectly and directly involved with the project. Community perceptions were also taken into considerations by telephone based surveys in the year 2001 and 2004. The findings of the interviews showed that this project had a wide reach in the community (Blakely et al., 2010)This project succeeded in engaging a committed and diverse community members in its activities and governance. This project also funded many small scale initiatives that were called Go Now initiatives. Some of these projects had an ethnic focus while others were focused on the youth. This project helped in enhancing the skills of Ranui people. This project also faced many challenges in regard to staffing, governance and programme prioritization. Maori health promotion is about facilitating health lifestyles by targeting individual level behavior. Some of the lifestyle factors were also involved as smoking and the use of tobacco in Maoris resulted in high percentage of deaths (Salmond et al., 2011). To inspect and inquire about this issue Whakarapopotonga o nga take komiti inquiry was carried out. The aim of this inquiry was to know whether tobacco industry was impacting the health of Maoris population by promoting tobacco. It also concentrated on developmental, social, economic and cultural impacts that arise from tobacco use. Pacific and Maori people are more likely to smoke than others in the population according to the New Zealand Health Survey 38% of Maori people smoke in comparison to 25% in Pacific people and 15 % of New Zealand European population. Scientific evidence has showed that tobacco control interventions such as media campaigns, smoke free environment legislature, higher taxation on tobacco products and restr iction on marketing is affecting the prevalence of smoking in the country (Blakely et al., 2015).,(Blakely, 2002). However there is also growing evidence that shows that the goal of minimizing smoking by the year 2025 is also missing the Maori population by a wide margin(van der Deen FS, 2014), (Ball J, 2016). Kia Uruuru Mai a Hauora framework is of ecological perspective as it stresses on the determinants of health. Maoris health promotion is about the connection between the environment and Maori wellness(Ratima M. , 2001). The balance of health can be achieved when we retain and strengthen the Maoris identity. In this health promotion the health gains are achieved through Maoris world views. Four core values were identified in this framework that were Maori identity, equity, social justice, and collective autonomy(Ratima, 2004). The expectation that the Maori health promotion has to achieve is that the strategy or intervention should not only be for the Maori but it should also highlight the Maoris identity. The health promotion can be valued when the power and control is shifted to the Maoris to control their health. Maoris emphasis that individual aspirations and needs are below the aspirations and needs of a group. So autonomy is not positioned for an individual but it is positioned f or a Maoris collective. It is based on the value that social justice is about equal worth to every person in an equal way and therefore they should all have equal rights. Equity stands for fairness and not sameness. Equity here means that Maori should have an equal and fair access to opportunities that gives them the opportunity to fulfil their own potential. The framework of Kia Uruuru Mai a Hauora also provides principles like self-determination, quality, holism, diversity, and cultural integrity. Holism as a principle is about four dimensions that are focus, time, sectors and realms. It explains how Maoris health promotion should include intergenerational connections that identifies the continuity between spiritual realms and material realms. Maori health promotion should always have a By Maoris , For Maoris approach, this is due to the self-determination principle. Maoris health promotion should always reinforce Maoris cultural practices and values. The implication that this pri nciple has is that no health intervention or strategy should be based on stereotypes(Ratima M. , 2004). This framework identifies central processes of medication, capacity building, resourcing, empowerment, connectedness, cultural responsiveness and advocacy. Empowerment as a process is about increasing the Maoris control over their health(Craig, 2002). It should focus on both the Maoris collectives and individual interest. Mediation is the process to facilitate inter and intra sectoralism. Intra sectoralism is about its alignment with Wh?nau Ora which recognizes the mediation between stakeholders and Maori health promoters. Connectedness is a process about intergenerational transfer of values and knowledge while identifying the Wh?nau centered approach. Advocacy is the process that applies the process of political lobbying, public lobbying and lobbying for stakeholder those who are promoting the Maoris health interventions. (Ratima M. R., 2007) We have to keep in mind that Maoris are not at the same point as the other parts of the population . There are certain strategies that are identified to promote health some of them are about shifting the emphasis towards promotion of health, disease prevention and primary health care rather than just concentrating on tertiary care. Another strategy was to increase the participation of the Maori in the society thereby giving them more control over the determinants of health. A developmental approach should be used to ensure that health promotion should benefit the community in a sustainable manner(Labonte, 1996). A public policy is needed that should promote and secure Maoris identity. The policy should have inter and intra sectoral measures that deal with the political, social, economic and cultural determinants of health. Adequate evidences should be used to provide a relevant resources of Maoris health. Community development based on identity is a strategy that will have a positive outcome on the health disparities as these communities are driven (Signal, et al.,2016).. There is a recognition among the promoters that they have to work with the Maori community and they have to strengthen the community towards achieving a self-determining stance. The Ottawa Charter for health promotion is a framework that is used all over the world. It is one of the generic health promotion strategy that the Maori health promotion draws theory from. Out of the five strategies that were listed in the Ottawa Charter for health promotion one is about strengthening the community(Laverack, 2007). This is about supporting the community to take ownership and to control and participate in initiatives. Commission of social determinants of health have proved that circumstances in which the person is born, they live, work and spend their life are responsible for the health inequalities. To curb and to reduce the se inequalities in New Zealand it is crucial that government realizes that effective Maori leadership is needed. They need to support the leadership by empowering the whanau members, iwi leaders, local Maoris and individuals at each level. This will promote a culturally responsive health care that safeguards the high standards of care that the Maoris hold. References Adams, J. W. (2005). A Report on the Findings of the Ranui Social Cohesion Surveys,. Auckland: Massey University. Ball, J., Edwards, R., Waa, A., Bradbrook, S., Gifford, H., Cunningham, C. et al. (2016). Is the NZ Government responding adequately to the M?ori Affairs Select Committees 2010 recommendations on tobacco control? A brief review.N Z Med J,129(1428), 345-348. Blakely, T., Thomson, G., Wilson, N., Edwards, R., Gifford, H. (2010). The M?ori Affairs Select Committee Inquiry and the road to a smokefree Aotearoa.N Z Med J,,123(1326), 26-32. Blakely, T. (2002). The New Zealand CensusMortality Study: Socioeconomic Inequalities and Adult Mortality 199194. Wellington: Ministry of Health. Blakely, T., Cobiac, L., Cleghorn, C., Pearson, A., van der Deen, F., Kvizhinadze, G. et al. (2015). Health, Health Inequality, and Cost Impacts of Annual Increases in Tobacco Tax: Multistate Life Table Modeling in New Zealand.PLOS Medicine,12(7), e1001856. Came, H., McCreanor, T., Doole, C., Simpson, T. (2016). Realising the rhetoric: refreshing public health providers efforts to honour Te Tiriti o Waitangi in New Zealand.Ethnicity Health,22(2), 105-118. Craig, G. (2002). Towards the measurement of empowerment: the evaluation of community development. Community Development Journal, 33(1), 124146. Durie, M. (2000). Te pae mahutonga: a model for Maori health promotion. Palmerston North: Massey University. Labonte, R. (1996). Community development in the public health sector: The possibilities of an empowering relationship between the state and civil society. Toronto: York University . Laverack, G. (2007). Health promotion practice: Building empowered communities. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Ratima, K. a. (2004). Maori public health action: a role for all public health professionals. Wellington: National Health Committee. Ratima, M. (2001). Kia uruuru mai a hauora being healthy, being Maori: Conceptualising Maori health promotion. Dunedin: University of Otago. Ratima, M. (2004). Evidence-based Maori health promotion. Melbourne: World Conference on Health Promotion and Health Education. Ratima, M. R. (2007). Rauringa raupa: Recruitment and retention of Maori in the health and disability workforce. Auckland: AUT University. Salmond, C., Crampton, P., Atkinson, J., Edwards, R. (2011). A Decade of Tobacco Control Efforts in New Zealand (1996-2006): Impacts on Inequalities in Census-Derived Smoking Prevalence.Nicotine Tobacco Research,14(6), 664-673. Signal, L., Bowers, S., Edwards, R., Gifford, H., Hudson, S., Jenkin, G. et al. (2016). Process, pitfalls and profits: lessons from interviewing New Zealand policy-makers: Table 1:.Health Promotion International, daw065. van der Deen FS, I. T. (2014). Projecting future smoking prevalence to 2025 and beyond in New Zealand using smoking prevalence data from the 2013 Census. N Z Med J , 71-79.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Risk Management

Introduction Internal and external environments of an organization pose a wide range of risks to an organization and managers should establish strategies to manage risks for the long-term survival. Risk management strategies are enhanced by the culture of the organization and this can be maintained by inculcating a culture of good values, believes, norms and attitudes.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Risk Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Changes in the global markets today create a huge risk to organizations and this creates the need to have mechanisms to solve organizational problems in a professional manner. Thus, risk management is a crucial aspect of an organization and proper strategies need to be established to ensure the survival of organizations in the turbulent market environments (Jafari, Rezaeenour, Mazdeh, Hooshmandi, 2011). Therefore, risk management entails setting goals and objectives a nd ensuring that they are achieved in the most effective manner, managing change that is brought about by introduction of new strategies, managing cultural and technological diversity among other tasks. Risk management covers a wide range of activities and aims at establishing better strategies of promoting the success of an organization. Enterprise wide risk management (EWRM) Enterprise wide risk management involves managing risks and seizing opportunities which help an organization to achieve its objectives. Managing risks as opportunities come is very important in maintaining the success of the organization. Creating value to the shareholders capital is the major bestowed upon the managers of an organization. This can be achieved by identifying opportunities available in the business environment and seizing them actively to ensure the interest of shareholders is protected. Therefore, EWRM is defined as an approach used to manage enterprises by controlling risks (Gupta, 2011). It is important to note that organizations are founded on goals and it is the achievement of these goals that differentiates successful organizations from others. There are various risks associated with achieving goals and the management requires to develop strategies to reduce the effect or evaluate the impact such risks have on the organization. Organizations set goals to be achieved and these goals can only be achieved by proper planning of all resources. Risks are encountered in every situation in an organization and it is important to put clear strategies to deal with risks as they occur to avoid losses (Hepworth, Rooney Rooney, 2009).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is evident that EWRM is an important aspect that determines how organization succeeds in turbulent market conditions. Managers use risk management as a benchmark to measure the achievement of an organization. An organization that is able to manage all the risk elements successfully acquires better position in the market. Most successful organizations have ventured in risky businesses and this has created a lot of wealth to the shareholders. Operating in high risk activities requires establishing a strong risk management system to ensure that the organization can not make a lot of losses in case the event of risks occurring (Mbuya, n.d.). GRC and its relationship with EWRM Governance, risk and compliance are management tools that comprise of three aspects. First, governance which refers to the process by which the top management team apply to control, plan, organize and direct the resources of an organization to achieve the goals which have been set by the shareholders. It involves making decisions by the top management by using the appropriate information. Secondly, risk management involves the identification, analysis and response to the risks affecting an organization. T o manage risks an organization can control, avoid, accept, or transfer the risks to other parties. Lastly, compliance deals with conforming to all requirements stipulated by the concerned stakeholders (Mohapatra, n.d.). According to Wilson and Dobson (2008) governance, risk and compliance is related to EWRM in that the management puts measures to regulate the activities of the organization to ensure that all rules and regulations are adhered to. By complying with the rules and regulations of the organization, the management ensures that it avoids the risks of penalties related to legal systems of a country. The management evaluates the costs related to the implementation of various strategies and this helps solve some problems that may affect the smooth operation of an organization. Compliance enhances the control of risks associated with the implementation of decisions made by the management of an organization (Mather, Kumaraswamy Latif, 2009). Therefore, we find out that there is a close relationship between GRC and EWRM because the two interact with each other. However, there are few differences between GRC and EWRM in that GRC deals with how organizations are managed and how the organization benefits when all rules and regulations are adhered to by all stakeholders.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Risk Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It also explains the relationship between the internal and external environmental elements and how they interact with each other. On the other hand, EWRM is based on risk management at the enterprise level and provides little interaction between the internal and external environments (Mather, Kumaraswamy Latif, 2009). Opinion about above statement a fair comment on the state of play today Enterprise wide risk management (EWRM) as an assurance tool is increasingly being mandated; indeed it is embedded as a concept in ISO31000:2009. This statem ent is a fair comment on the state of play today. Many organizations have realized the importance of managing risks and this has been facilitated by the intensifying number of risks in the market environments today. To establish better strategy for improving the competitiveness of an organization can only be made possible by managing all the risks that may be associated with the implementation of such strategies (Loras, 2010). Threats and responses to be offered There are various threats that managers encounter when maintaining values in an organization. In competitive environment organizations face threats which may hinder accomplishment of the stipulated values. Some of these threats may be cause by changes in internal and external environmental factors such macro and micro economic variables, legal factors, technological changes, political environments among others (Champoux, 2010). The response to these threats determines the success of an organization. The management responds b y studying the changes in the market conditions as well as other factors that may affect the activities of the organization. Some examples of the responses that can be offered to these threats are change management, making better decisions, establishing stronger strategies, collaborating with consultants and other measures (Klein, 2011).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Change management is an important aspect that managers need to learn when dealing with threats and responses. Moran and Brightman (2001, pg 111) have defined change management as â€Å"the process of continually renewing an organization’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers.† Change is the opening through which people or organization focus the future by bringing new systems which create success. Change can be introduced by an individual person or organization or it can be happen by itself. Change brings opportunities for growth and improvement. The management of an organization should become fast in introducing and implementing change since the world is changing at an alarming speed. Jennings and Haughton (2002) explain that the need for change has been caused by â€Å"revolutionary technologies, consolidation, well-funded new competition, unpredictable customers, and a quickening in the pace of ch ange hurled unfamiliar conditions at management.† (P. 212). Change management focuses on developing future structures of a business to improve the performance as well as introduce new technologies which improve the performance of the organization. The path towards establishing future structures should be well monitored to create a smooth transition for the organization to achieve the desired changes as well as manage risks. Crisis within the organization create the need for organizational change and the management should be prepared to handle all changes that might be required by the organization. The internal and external business environments are changing at an alarming rate and change management is an essential tool for capturing new developments being introduced. Competition in the global markets has increased and this is forcing managers to introduce innovation in the management of the systems within an organization in order to catch up with the changes (Luecke, 2003). Ma ny changes introduced within an organization fail due to poor preparedness as well as management of the entire process. The lack of appropriate frameworks to support the implementation and management of change within an organization are the main causes of failure by many changes introduced by the management (Burnes, 2004). The nature of organizational change has been assumed for a long period of time by managers and contemporary studies have indicated that strict measures should be introduced to cater for the gap between the success and failure of the changes being introduced by an organization. According to Edmonstone (1995) â€Å"many of the change processes over the last 25 years have been subject to fundamental flaws, preventing the successful management of change† (p. 16). Contemporary studies have identified that the pace of change management has increase in the recent years and managers are becoming more responsive to the changes in the environment (Burnes, 2004). Ther e is no organization or industry is immune from change since change is caused by many internal and external factors. The introduction, implementation and monitoring of change requires the collaboration of all stakeholders to an organization. Change cannot be achieved by an individual department, or sector. The management should respond quickly to internal and external changes required by the organization. Delays in response can retard the achievement of appropriate change. Since new technologies are being introduced in the global markets each day, delay in establishing change may result into the organization adopting old systems which are not beneficial. Adequate research should be done into the recent changes in the market. There are no universally acceptable processes of creating change in an organization. The management should apply the best structures relevant to the organization (Burnes, 2004). Inculcating culture in EWRM and/ or GRC According to Kotter and Heskett (1992) cultu re refers to the beliefs, attitudes, values and norms that a given people have. The organizational culture is defined by the stakeholders and this is reflected in the nature of activities the management sets. The culture of an organization is inculcated in the GRC by creating systems of compliance. Culture establishes the norms to be observed by all stakeholders and this creates the basis of compliance. Culture explains the extent to which the management can take risks while managing the resources of an organization (Klein, 2011). There are organizations which are risk-averse while others are encourage taking risks as the basis of operation. This differentiates the decisions to be made by the management during the operation and implementation of the strategies (Burnaby Hass, 2009). To achieve appropriate governance the management requires establishing better strategies of promoting the cultural morals of an organization. Cultural morals have become a major concern in the business w orld today because organizations are operating in multicultural environments. Working with people from different cultures requires understanding the cultures of each person in the organization Global human resource management involves dealing with people from different cultures and different backgrounds. There are several advantages and disadvantages of operating global human resource management. Some companies have failed while others have acquired great success after extending their operations across the borders. Proper strategies are required in the management of employees with diversified cultures. The political, legal and social environments in the global labor markets are different and the management should be very accurate in establishing the appropriate strategies which match the particular needs of the different employees. With the increase in globalization many people are seeking employment across the borders of their domestic markets. However, organizations dealing in the international scene face some challenges when relocating employees from one country to another. There are several barriers which hinder managers of multinational companies from relocating their employees from one country to another. These barriers relate to the physical conditions, legal aspects, economics, and cultural barriers (Golembiewski, 1995). Complexity in the diverse cultures makes is difficult to operate in many countries. Several companies have failed in their strategies to operate in the global scene due to due to poor integration of the ingredients required in multinational human resources management. Global human resource management is a strategy that is gaining a lot of importance especially after the spirit of globalization started. Several companies have improved their performance after establishing proper strategies to manage their employees while others have failed due to poor integration of the required aspects of global human resources management. The need to u nderstand the cultural differences, the diversity in economic, legal and political environments is very important when dealing with global human resources management (Burnaby Hass, 2009). The culture of an organization dictates the shape taken by the management goals and objectives. The success or failure of organizational change is determined to a great extent by the culture in the organization Cultural change is required for the achievement of successful change management strategies. The globalization of many organizations has created a scenario where multinational organizations are operating in diverse cultures where many people are involved. The integration of each cultural aspect into the processes of the organizational change is essential for the success of the organization. The global business requires applying the best strategies to achieve a competitive edge. Many global organizations have failed to venture into some countries due to poor analysis of cultural aspects of th e people it is involved in. the management of change is a very important aspect in achieving success in accomplishing global goals. The management of an organization must analyze the cultural needs of all consumer groups. This will enable the management to match the cultural needs of the various consumers into the products being manufactured by the organization. In addition, the employees of the organization need to understand the cultural aspects of the organization in order to establish goals which are achievable and which will create success to the organization. Both the internal and external environmental factors should be well analyzed when integrating a culture that will create successful change management strategies (Schein, 1992). Changing culture is a systematic process which requires proper strategies to ensure all stakeholders internalize the required changes. This process is affected by factors such as the complexity, ambiguity and powers the cultural aspects of the orga nization. The main architects of an organizational culture are the top management individuals.The culture of an organization is developed by the people working there as well as all other internal and external stakeholders (Schein, 1992). Is it simply too expensive for value? It is not too expensive to maintain values in an organization because there are more benefits accrued from operating in an ethical manner. Values provide an organization with the guidelines to be applied in the implementation of strategies. When an organization conducts business unethically there are many costs incurred and these can only be avoided by applying the best values possible. Maintaining values improves the public image of an organization and this makes an organization achieve a competitive edge (Thompson Martin, 2005). Organizations which fail to establish a good system of values they end up incurring many losses which could have been avoided. These costs may include loss of customer trust, legal ac tion, bad corporate image and others. The cost of failing to maintain values in an organization is too high not only in the short run but also in the long run. Organizations which focus on existing in the market for a longer period of time use strategies which promote a good image which will attract more customers, they maintain legal ethics and other activities which improve the position of the company in the market (Cunningham, 2001). Conclusion Risk management is an important process that managers should maintain in an organization. It is inevitable to have risks and managers should have better strategies to deal with risks. The long-term survival of an organization depends on the ability to manage risks. The intensifying competition in the global markets has forced managers to focus on maintaining a strong risks management program by establishing values. Complying with the values and cultural aspects of an organization is important in achieving the goals and objectives of an org anization. The culture of an organization determines its success in the market environment. It is a reflection of the beliefs and attitudes that people have towards the organizational systems. Culture is developed and shaped by the stakeholders of the organization. Change management is very important to an organization and managers should possess the required skills of carrying out this process. 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